Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC): Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment (2023)

What is muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC)?

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is cancer that has spread to the detrusor muscle of the bladder. The detrusor muscle is the thick muscle that lies deep in the bladder wall. This cancer is more likely to spread to other parts of the body. About 1 in 4 people who get bladder cancer in the United States have the muscle-invasive type.

Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States. More than 81,000 people will be diagnosed with bladder cancer in the United States this year. Among them, there are nearly 62,000 men and 19,000 women. About 25% of bladder cancers are MIBC.

Bladder cancer becomes more common as a person ages. It is most commonly found in the 75-84 age group. Caucasians are more likely to develop bladder cancer than any other ethnicity. But there are more African Americans who do not survive the disease.

what is cancer

Cancer is when the cells in your body go haywire. When this happens, the body cannot function as it should. Most cancers form a lump called a tumor or growth. Some types of cancer grow and spread quickly. Others grow more slowly. Not all nodes are cancer. Cancerous growths are sometimes called malignant tumors.

What is Bladder Cancer?

The body stores urine in the bladder before it leaves the body. Urine is what we call liquid waste produced by the kidneys. The bladder is a hollow organ in the pelvis with flexible muscular walls. The bladder can get bigger or smaller as it fills with urine. Urine is carried to the bladder through tubes called ureters. When you go to the bathroom, your bladder muscles contract. They then expel the urine through a tube called the urethra.

When bladder cells grow abnormally, they can become bladder cancer. A person with bladder cancer has one or more tumors in the bladder.

How does bladder cancer develop and spread?

The bladder wall is made up of many layers made up of different types of cells. Most bladder cancers start in the urothelium, or transitional epithelium. This is the inner lining of the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma is a cancer that forms in the cells of the urothelium.

Bladder cancer gets worse when it grows into or through other layers of the bladder wall. Over time, cancer can grow outside the bladder into nearby tissues. Bladder cancer can spread to nearby and distant lymph nodes. The cancer can spread to the bones, lungs or liver, and other parts of the body.


Symptoms You Shouldn't Ignore

Blood in the urine is the most common symptom of bladder cancer. It is usually painless. Blood in the urine often cannot be seen without a microscope. If you can see blood with the naked eye, you should immediately inform your doctor. Even if the blood is gone, you should still talk to your doctor about it.

Blood in your urine doesn't always mean you have bladder cancer. Blood in the urine can have several causes. You may have an infection orkidney stones🇧🇷 In some people, very small amounts of blood may be normal.

Frequent urination and painful urination (dysuria) are less common symptoms of bladder cancer. If you have these symptoms, it's important to see your doctor. Your provider will find out if you have one.urinary tract infectionor something more serious like bladder cancer.


People can get bladder cancer from exposure to tobacco or other carcinogens. There are also some risks related to genes and certain types of infections. Another known risk factor is some type of radiation beam directed at the pelvis.

Smoking is a major risk factor

You are more likely to get bladder cancer if you smoke or inhale tobacco smoke. Smoking may be the cause of half of all bladder cancers. If you smoke, you are more likely to get bladder cancer than those who stop.

(Video) 4.21.2020 Urology COViD Didactics - Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC)

Occupational exposure is another known cause.

Some things in the workplace can increase your risk of bladder cancer. Contact with chemicals used to make plastics, paints, textiles, leather and rubber can cause bladder cancer.

To diagnose

If your doctor thinks you have MIBC, he or she may refer you to a urologist. Your urologist will perform a complete medical history and physical exam. More tests may be needed to make a diagnosis. If you are diagnosed with bladder cancer, you may need additional tests. These tests find out the stage of your disease. It will also give your doctor an idea of ​​which treatment is best for you.

Tests for MIBC

The following tests will likely be done:

  • Urine cytology.The color and content of your urine will be checked. This test also looks at cells in the body under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
  • BStress tests:A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) that includes kidney and liver function tests is among the blood tests your doctor will order.
  • a CT scan(also known as a CT scan or CT scan) with a "cystoscopy" of the bladder are usually good enough to diagnose bladder cancer.
  • cystoscopes:A doctor will use a thin tube with a light and a camera on the end (cystoscope) to travel down the urethra and into the bladder. It allows your doctor to see inside the bladder cavity. Your doctor will usually use a flexible cystoscope and local anesthesia for the in-office exam. The doctor will take a tissue sample with a cystoscope in the operating room. If you remove tissue at this point, your doctor can examine the cells. The tissue sample will be sent to a lab where the stage of your cancer will be determined. It will help to choose the right treatment.
  • Rigid cystoscopy:The slack the doctor uses to make you sleep is not flexible as in practice, but rigid. This means that it is straight and does not bend. This cystoscope is larger, has a light at the tip, and surgical instruments can be passed through it. This allows for more extensive work, such as the transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) described below.

The diagnosis of bladder cancer is confirmed when doctors view the tumor through a cystoscope and during the transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) described below. You will likely be put to sleep for these tests. At that point, your doctor will determine the stage of the cancer and try to remove it. They will also see if the cancer has spread.

  • Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).This is a very important technique for accurate typing, staging and classification of tumors. Your doctor may look inside your bladder, take samples of the tumor, and resect (cut out) any tumors he can see.
  • Blue light cystoscopy.For this test, your doctor uses a catheter to insert an imaging solution through your urethra and into your bladder. The solution is left in the bladder for approximately one hour. The doctor then uses the cystoscope to inspect the bladder under regular white light and then blue light. Bladder cancer cells are best seen in blue light.

imaging exams

These tests help diagnose and classify bladder cancer.

  • Retrograde pyelogram:This test uses X-rays to examine the bladder, ureters, and kidneys. The test is done during a cystoscopy.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):These tests use a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to create detailed images of the inside of your body.
  • If imaging results of the chest, abdomen, or pelvis are abnormal, or if a lymph node biopsy is not possible, your doctor may order a positron emission tomography (PET) scan.

For a PET scan, you will be given a special drug (a tracer) through a vein, or you may inhale or swallow the drug. Your cells pick up the tracer as it passes through your body. When the scanner passes over the bladder, the marker allows your doctor to better see where and how much the cancer is growing.

classification and staging

What are the grades and stages of muscle-invasive bladder cancer?

Grade and stage are two important ways of measuring and describing how cancer develops. Tumor grade tells you how aggressive the cancer cells are. Tumor stage indicates how far the cancer has spread.

tumor grade

Staging is one of the ways to tell if the cancer is coming back. It also tells us how quickly the cancer can grow and/or spread.

Tumors can be low-grade or high-grade. High grade tumor cells are highly abnormal, poorly organized and more severe. They are the most aggressive and are most likely to grow into the bladder muscle.

Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC): Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment (1)


The tumor stage indicates the amount of bladder tissue that has cancer. Using a small sample of the tumor, the doctor can determine the stage of the bladder cancer. This is called a biopsy. A pathologist in a laboratory examines the sample under a microscope and determines the stage of the cancer.

The stages of bladder cancer are:

  • Ta: Tumor in the bladder mucosa that does not invade the muscle
  • Tis: Carcinoma in situ - a high-grade cancer - looks like a reddish, velvety patch on the bladder wall
  • T1: Tumor penetrates the bladder mucosa but does not reach the muscle layer
  • T2: Tumor grows into the muscle layer of the bladder
  • T3: Tumor extends beyond the muscle layer into the tissues surrounding the bladder
  • T4: The tumor has spread to nearby structures, such as the lymph nodes and prostate in men or the vagina in women.

What to expect from MIBC

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a more serious and advanced stage of bladder cancer. MIBC is when the cancer has grown far into the bladder wall (stage T2 and beyond).

In patients with MIBC, the overall prognosis (how the disease may progress) has not changed over the past 30 years. In patients undergoing cystectomy (surgical or partial removal of the bladder), the rate of recurrence of stage T2 cancer can range from 20 to 30%. The cancer recurrence rate can be as high as 40% for T3, over 50% for T4, and generally higher when lymph nodes are involved. When bladder cancer comes back, it usually happens within the first two years after bladder surgery.

(Video) A Review of AUA/SUO/ASTRO Guidelines for Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC)


A cancer diagnosis can be very frightening. However, your doctor and medical team are there to help you.

Your treatment team will discuss with you what you need to know about all available treatments. They will inform you about the possible risks and side effects of the treatment on your quality of life.

Options and treatment options

Your treatment options depend on how much your cancer has grown.

There are essentially two options:

  • Removal of the bladder (cystectomy) with or without chemotherapy
  • chemotherapy with radiotherapy

bubble removal

Bladder removal procedures (cystectomy).
Cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)

Removal of the bladder with chemotherapy increases survival rates for patients with bladder cancer. Before removing your bladder, your doctor will likely offer you neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant means "to add". If you have MIBC, you may receive chemotherapy along with your bladder removal. Before your doctor performs a radical cystectomy (removal of the entire bladder), he or she may first try to shrink the tumor with cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). This means that the active ingredient cisplatin or a combination of cisplatin is given first as chemotherapy and then the bladder is removed.

Adjuvant chemotherapy means that the drug is given after surgery. Your doctor can offer you this treatment if it is appropriate for you.


Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. For MIBC, chemotherapy will likely be given before radical (total) cystectomy. As mentioned above, neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (NAC) is recommended for the treatment of MIBC.

The drugs are usually given through a vein (intravenously). The drugs enter your bloodstream and travel through your body.

Doctors usually offer chemotherapy before removing the bladder to get the best survival rates. However, not everyone can receive chemotherapy. You may not receive chemotherapy if you have kidney failure, hearing loss, heart problems, or other health problems. Some patients may choose not to receive chemotherapy before surgery. However, some may still have it after surgery, depending on the stage of the tumor. Your bladder will likely have surgery about 6 to 8 weeks after your chemotherapy is finished.

Chemotherapy can be done on an outpatient basis at the hospital, in the doctor's office or at home. In rare cases, you may need to stay in the hospital. Sometimes chemotherapy is given in cycles. Each cycle usually has a treatment phase followed by a rest phase.

Chemotherapy has side effects. Side effects depend on which medications are given and how much is given. Chemotherapy kills fast-growing cancer cells, but drugs can also damage normal cells:

  • Blood cells: When chemotherapy drugs reduce levels of healthy blood cells, you are more likely to get infections, bruise or bleed easily, and feel very weak and tired. Your medical team will check for low blood cell counts. If your levels are low, you may need to stop chemotherapy or reduce your drug dose. There are also medications that can help your body make new blood cells.
  • Cells in the hair roots: Chemotherapy can cause hair loss. If you lose your hair, it will grow back after treatment. However, the hair color and texture may be different.
  • Cells that line the digestive system: Chemotherapy can cause loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, or sores in the mouth and lips. Your medical team can give you medications and suggest other ways to treat these problems. Symptoms usually go away when treatment ends.
  • Nerve cells: Some drugs used for bladder cancer can cause tingling or numbness in your hands and feet. Your medical team can suggest ways to manage these side effects.

Surgery to remove the bladder (cystectomy)

A cystectomy is needed for MIBC because the cancer has grown into the muscle. Part or all of the bladder can be removed. As mentioned above, before your bladder is removed, you will likely receive cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Bladder cancer can spread to the lymph nodes. A pelvic lymph node dissection is used to find out if the cancer has spread beyond the bladder to the lymph nodes. Pelvic lymph node dissection is considered the standard of care. Standard of care means this is the usual treatment for the condition. In a pelvic lymph node dissection, the lymph nodes (the fatty tissue that surrounds the pelvic blood vessels) are removed. A pelvic lymph node dissection may also be done to treat cancer if only the lymph nodes are involved.

What happens during the operation?

Your bladder can be removed through an open or robotic approach. It's called a "robot" because the computers help the surgeon during the procedure. With open access, the doctor makes a larger incision in the middle of the abdomen to remove the bladder. Open surgery may have a shorter operating time.

(Video) Muscle invasive bladder cancer - EMPIRE Urology Lecture Series

For the robotic process, a few smaller incisions are made in the abdomen. Your surgeon inserts small instruments through the openings to reach the bladder. People who have robotic surgeries often experience less pain and less blood loss.

There are several things to think about before choosing open or robotic blister removal:

  • your body weight
  • Previous operation history
  • Previous irradiation history
  • Where to go for surgery: There is evidence that complex surgeries (eg bladder removal) give better results when performed in Centers of Excellence rather than hospitals, etc.
  • Surgeon Experience: Ask your surgeon about their level of familiarity with this type of surgery. If you have concerns, get a second opinion.
Radical cystectomy (removal of the entire bladder)

For MIBC, the most common type of surgery is radical cystectomy. The surgeon removes the entire bladder, nearby lymph nodes, and part of the urethra. In men, the surgeon may also remove the prostate. In women, the surgeon may remove the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and vaginal wall. Other adjacent tissue can also be removed.

When the entire bladder is removed, the surgeon creates another way for the kidneys to collect and store the urine before it is expelled from the body. This is called a urinary diversion. Your doctor will explain the risks of a cystectomy and the different methods of urinary diversion.

Partial cystectomy (removal of part of the bladder)

For MIBC, a partial cystectomy is a less likely option because the cancer may be more advanced. A partial cystectomy may be considered in selected cases of bladder cancer where the tumor is in a specific part of the bladder and does not affect more than one location in the bladder. Ask your surgeon if you are a candidate for this type of surgery.

Bladder removal and urinary diversion

When the bladder is completely or partially removed, the urine is stored and forced out of the body by a different route. If you are going to have a radical cystectomy, you should be aware of your urinary diversion options.

Because the surgeon uses bowel tissue for bladder reconstruction, he must have enough bowel tissue to perform a urinary diversion. Before that happens, your surgeon will discuss the procedure. Your doctor will talk with you about what to do and what changes to make.

These are some of the urinary diversion options your surgeon may be able to offer you:

  • illegal driving.An ileal conduit is when a part of the upper intestine is used to create an opening (stoma) on the surface of the stomach. The ureters are interconnected, allowing urine to exit your body through the opening. A bag is attached to collect the urine, which is "emptied" several times a day. This is the easiest and most commonly used distraction after bladder surgery.
  • mainland skin reservoir.Your surgeon will create a pouch in your body and you will learn how to use a catheter to remove urine.
  • Orthotopo Neoblase.The surgeon creates an internal bag, much like a bladder, to store the urine. Your ureters are connected to this new "bladder" and you can urinate through the urethra as you did before surgery.

In some cases, it may be necessary to use a catheter to remove the urine.

Talk to your doctor about your urinary diversion options. A urinary diversion will seriously affect your quality of life.

chemotherapy with radiotherapy

bladder preservation

Chemotherapy with radiation can be used for bladder sparing (sparing part or all of the bladder). Bladder preservation may be suggested for selected patients in whom radical cystectomy is not an option or desirable. To preserve the bladder, adequate health conditions must exist.

Your surgeon will remove the tumor (transurethral resection of bladder tumor, TURBT), remove the lymph nodes, and administer chemotherapy and radiation. This is called a multimodal approach (multiple method). Some drugs that can be used along with radiation are cisplatin, 5-FU, and mitomycin-C. This treatment regimen must be followed carefully with ongoing cystoscopic studies, cross-sectional imaging (eg, CT scan) and other methods to monitor and evaluate the tumor.

MIBC recurs in approximately 30% of patients using the multimodal bladder-sparing approach. It is important that your medical team monitor you closely in case the tumor progresses and a cystectomy becomes necessary.
Radiation alone at MIBC is not an option to control the spread of bladder tumors. However, radiation may be offered in conjunction with bleb removal.


Radiation as the sole form of treatment is not intended for MIBC. It is usually done with chemotherapy and after surgery. Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells.

(Video) Success Story | Muscle Invasive Bladder Carcinoma

The radiation comes from a big machine. The device directs the rays to the bladder area in the abdomen. You may go to a hospital or clinic five days a week for several weeks to receive radiotherapy. Each treatment session lasts approximately 30 minutes.

Radiation therapy is painless, but it can cause other side effects. Problems with radiation include nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Also, you may feel very tired during radiation therapy. Your medical team can suggest ways to treat or manage these side effects.

Bladder Cancer Clinical Trials

What about clinical trials?

You may be hearing about possible clinical trials for bladder cancer. Clinical trials are research studies that involve people. They test whether a new treatment or procedure is safe and effective.

Through clinical trials, doctors are finding new ways to improve treatments and the quality of life for people with illnesses. While clinical trials may or may not be effective for your specific issue, they are an option to consider. Studies are available for all stages of cancer.

after treatment

Be sure to keep in touch with your doctor. You should wait to see your doctor for some time after your treatment and surgery.

Aftercare is not the same for everyone. However, ongoing observation includes some or all of the following:

  • Imaging tests (eg, CT scan) approximately every 3 to 6 months for 2 to 3 years and then annually.
  • Lab tests can be done every 3-6 months for 2-3 years; and then once a year. Kidney and liver function tests will be part of these tests.
  • Evaluate quality of life problems such as B. Urinary symptoms and sexual function.

If you've had surgery, it takes time to heal. Recovery time is different for everyone. It's common to feel weak or tired for a while. However, like any other major surgery, complications can occur with bladder surgery. Complications after cystectomy are more common in elderly patients and women.

There are some things you can do before surgery to help your recovery. If you smoke, seek help to stop before surgery. You also need to make sure you eat well so your body can heal and deal with the changes.

Here are some possible side effects of the surgery:

  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT).DVT occurs when a blood clot forms in a deep vein, such as the veins in your legs. It sometimes happens after major surgery. Symptoms include swelling, pain and tenderness, usually in the back of the legs. Your surgeon will give you medication and equipment after surgery to prevent DVT.
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) problems.You may have problems with bowel function right after the operation. This usually happens after abdominal surgery. Your doctor will take steps to monitor bowel function and prevent gastrointestinal problems.
  • urinary diversionUrinary diversion after bladder surgery is a big change. You may need to learn how to remove urine from your body with a catheter. There is also a chance that the stoma (opening) is leaking to drain urine. Infections related to the urinary diversion may occur, as well as infections related to the kidneys.
    You should learn everything you can about a urinary diversion before getting one. Before you leave the hospital, your healthcare professionals will ensure that you receive the training you need to handle your new lifestyle.
  • hormonal changesWomen who have not yet gone through menopause may experience hot flashes after having their ovaries removed.
  • reproductive health.After the operation, a man cannot have sexual intercourse. Once the prostate has been removed, a man can no longer father a child. When the uterus is removed, the woman can no longer become pregnant. When the surgeon removes part of a woman's vagina, sex can be difficult.
  • sexual dysfunction:Bladder cancer surgery will likely affect your sex life. If you have a partner, you may be worried about maintaining sexual intimacy and your relationship. Talking about your feelings can help you and your partner. You may find other ways to be intimate after treatment.
    If you don't have a partner, you might want to find out how to manage your love life after bladder cancer surgery. You and your partner can benefit from the advice of a counselor who specializes in discussing sexual issues.
    Your doctor may refer you to health professionals and counselors who specialize in sexual problems after cancer treatment. You can also find a certified sex therapist in your area on theAmerican Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors and Therapists.
  • Dealing with pain:Pain or discomfort may occur in the first few days after bladder surgery. Medicines can help manage your pain. Before surgery, talk to your doctor about managing your pain. After surgery, your doctor may change the plan if you need more control. See the pain management fact sheet for more information.

Try to adopt healthy lifestyle habits. You must exercise, eat a balanced diet and stop smoking. Your doctor may also recommend a cancer support group or individual counseling.

More information

Other Helpful Resources for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer advocacy network
National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health
National Library of Medicine
National Library of Medicine - Spanish version

American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors and Therapists

Find a certified sex therapist/counselor near you

free network

Peer support to help men cope with erectile dysfunction


What causes muscle invasive bladder cancer? ›

Causes. People can get bladder cancer when they come into contact with tobacco or other cancer-causing agents. There also are some risks linked to genes and certain types of infections. One more known risk factor is treatment with radiation given to the pelvis.

What stage of bladder cancer is muscle invasive? ›

Stage II: The cancer has spread into the thick muscle wall of the bladder. It is also called invasive cancer or muscle-invasive cancer.

What is the best treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer? ›

Treating muscle-invasive cancer with chemotherapy prior to cystectomy is associated with better survival outcomes; thus, the combination of preoperative ("neoadjuvant") chemotherapy and surgery is widely recognized as the standard of care for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

What is the survival rate for MIBC? ›

Such high grade urothelial lesions are called MIBC. These lesions may eventually spread outside the bladder to develop metastatic lesions in other organs, including lymph nodes, liver, lungs, bones, etc. MIBC has a very poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%.

Can you survive muscle invasive bladder cancer? ›

Five-year survival rates are 75% to 100% for grade 1 tumors, 46% to 75% for grade 2, and 22% to 55% for grade 3. Five-year reports of survival rates are 100% for stage Ta, 58% to 80% for T1, 29% to 80% for T2, 14% to 62% for T3a, 0% to 33% for T3b, and 0% to 20% for T4.

What is the standard treatment for MIBC? ›

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by radical cystectomy (RC) is considered the standard treatment paradigm for MIBC patients, which could result in significant perioperative mortality and morbidity, as well as the significant alteration of the quality of life (QOL).

What happens if bladder cancer is in the muscle? ›

If the bladder cancer has invaded the muscle of the bladder wall, then there is a very high risk that the patient will die of bladder cancer unless radical treatment with either radical cystectomy or radical radiotherapy is done.

Can you live 10 years with bladder cancer? ›

Survival for all stages of bladder cancer

almost 55 out of every 100 (almost 55%) survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they are diagnosed. around 45 out of every 100 (around 45%) survive their cancer for 10 years or more after diagnosis.

Does muscle invasive bladder cancer hurt? ›

Signs and Symptoms of MIBC

This often occurs without any sensation of pain. In addition, frequent and painful urination can also be noticed in some rare cases. Another less frequent, but significant sign of bladder cancer is irritation in the urinary tract without any visible hematuria.

What percentage of bladder cancer is muscle invasive? ›

Twenty to twenty-five percent of all newly diagnosed bladder cancers are muscle invasive in nature, and further, 20–25% of patients who are diagnosed with high-risk non-muscle invasive disease will eventually progress to muscle invasive disease in due course of time irrespective of adjuvant intravesical therapies.

Where does bladder cancer usually spread to first? ›

Not all bladder cancers will spread. But If it does it's most likely to spread to the structures close to the bladder, such as the ureters, urethra, prostate, vagina, or into the pelvis.

At what stage of bladder cancer is the bladder removed? ›

Treating stage II bladder cancer

When the cancer has invaded the muscle, radical cystectomy (removal of the bladder) is the standard treatment. Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well.

Are most bladder cancers curable? ›

Most bladder cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, when the cancer is highly treatable. But even early-stage bladder cancers can come back after successful treatment. For this reason, people with bladder cancer typically need follow-up tests for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer that recurs.

Are most bladder cancers treatable? ›

Bladder cancer is highly treatable when it is diagnosed in the early stages. The main types of treatments for bladder cancer include: Surgery: Bladder cancer treatment almost always has a surgical component that may be combined with other non-invasive approaches, including those listed below.

What is the median age for MIBC? ›

We included data of 240 MIBC patients with a median age of 74 yr and a median follow-up of 27 mo (interquartile range 11–44).

What is the 5 year survival for muscle invasive bladder cancer? ›

If the tumor is invasive but has not yet spread outside the bladder, the 5-year survival rate is 70%. About 33% of bladders cancers are diagnosed at this stage. If the cancer extends through the bladder to the surrounding tissue or has spread to nearby lymph nodes or organs, the 5-year survival rate is 38%.

What foods should be avoided with bladder cancer? ›

Eat things at room temperature and avoid foods that are greasy, sugary and spicy. Avoid milk products, alcohol, sugar and caffeine.

What superfoods help with bladder cancer? ›

Cruciferous vegetables, which you would know better as broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, brussel sprouts, and asparagus, contain a compound called sulforaphane and there's some studies suggesting that that may help inhibit bladder cancer growth.

How long is surgery to remove tumor from bladder? ›

Most people with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer have an operation called transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). This is done under general anaesthetic using a rigid cystoscope. A TURBT takes 15–40 minutes and does not involve any cuts to the outside of the body.

How long is recovery from bladder tumor surgery? ›

It will take 6 weeks from the date of surgery to fully recover from your operation. This can be divided into two parts -- the first 2 weeks and the last 4 weeks. During the first 2 weeks from the date of your surgery, it is important to be "a person of leisure".

What is the treatment for bladder wall thickness? ›

Increased intravesical pressure results from smooth muscle hypertrophy and thus the bladder wall thickens. Alpha-blocker therapy is the most preferred medical treatment in patients with LUTS. Bladder wall hypertrophy is caused by a thickening of the detrusor.

What are the signs that bladder cancer is getting worse? ›

If bladder cancer reaches an advanced stage and begins to spread, symptoms can include: pelvic pain. bone pain. unintentional weight loss.

Is bladder cancer a big deal? ›

Malignant bladder cancer may be life threatening, as it can spread quickly. Without treatment, it can damage tissues and organs. In this article, we cover everything you need to know about bladder cancer, including types, symptoms, causes, and treatments.

Does bladder cancer ever go into remission? ›

Bladder cancer can often be cured, or brought into remission, especially if treated early. However, bladder cancer tends to reappear. Overall, the chances of your cancer being cured depend on your type of cancer and how far it has spread.

What causes death with bladder cancer? ›

As in NMIBC patients, nonmalignancy causes of death included cardiovascular disease, COPD and allied conditions, and diabetes mellitus, among others. Meanwhile, malignant tumours were the main cause of death in patients with MBC, accounting for 91.85 percent of mortalities in this group.

Is muscle invasive bladder cancer locally advanced? ›

Muscle invasive bladder cancer has spread into or through the muscle layer of the bladder. To describe some muscle invasive bladder cancer, doctors might also use the terms: locally advanced bladder cancer.

What is stage 2 muscle invasive bladder cancer? ›

Patients with Stage II (T2) bladder cancer have cancer that invades through the connective tissue into the muscle wall, but has not spread outside the bladder wall or to local lymph nodes.

What are the odds of beating bladder cancer? ›

5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancer
SEER Stage5-year Relative Survival Rate
In situ alone Localized96% 70%
All SEER stages combined77%
Mar 1, 2022

What happens if you refuse treatment for bladder cancer? ›

Patients refusing cystectomy after chemotherapy might jeopardize their survival owing to lack of definitive treatment of the primary bladder tumor as well as the risk of developing new invasive tumors in the bladder.

Does bladder cancer progress quickly? ›

They tend to grow and spread slowly. High-grade bladder cancers look less like normal bladder cells. These cancers are more likely to grow and spread.

What are the second cancers after bladder cancer? ›

Lung cancer (most common, accounts for about 1 out 4 second cancers in bladder cancer survivors) Vaginal cancer. Prostate cancer. Kidney cancer.

What bones does bladder cancer spread to? ›

Bone was the initial metastatic site for 25/48 patients (52.1%) and pain was the initial symptoms for 54.2% of patients. The most common locations were pelvis 64.6%, spine 58.3%, rib 20.8%, femur 12.5%, humerus 6.3% and clavicle 6.3%.

Do you need chemo after bladder cancer? ›

For people with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, additional treatments involving surgery to remove the bladder or, less commonly, radiation therapy are usually recommended. Chemotherapy is commonly used in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

At what stage of bladder cancer is chemotherapy used? ›

Chemotherapy is almost always offered for stage 2 and stage 3 bladder cancer. It is often given before radical cystectomy surgery, but it can be given after surgery if it wasn't already used. Chemotherapy may also be used alone if surgery can't be done.

How long are you in the hospital for bladder cancer? ›

The chemotherapy solution is kept in your bladder for around an hour before being drained away. Most people can leave hospital less than 48 hours after having TURBT and are able do normal physical activity within 2 weeks.

How long is recovery from bladder biopsy? ›

You should expect to return to work in 1 week or less. You should reduce your activity levels for the first 1 to 2 weeks while healing. Use stairs gently for the first week. No heavy lifting, pulling or pushing over 10 to 15 pounds for 2-3 weeks.

What to expect after bladder tumor removal? ›

Right after TURBT you might have some bleeding and pain when you urinate. You can usually go home the same day or the next day and can return to your usual activities within a week or two. Even if the TURBT removes the tumor completely, bladder cancer often comes back (recurs) in other parts of the bladder.

Can you live without a bladder? ›

Yes, you can live without a bladder, but you'll need a new reservoir to hold pee that your kidneys produce. However, if a surgeon removes your entire bladder, there's an adjustment period as you become more comfortable with a new way to relieve yourself.

How many times can you have BCG treatments? ›

Maintenance BCG is typically given once per week for three weeks at 3, 6, and 12 months after the initial BCG treatment. In some cases, maintenance BCG treatment will be recommended for one year for those at intermediate risk of recurrence and for three years for those at higher risk for recurrence.

What are the side effects of bladder chemo? ›

Common side effects of chemo include:
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Hair loss.
  • Mouth sores.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Constipation.
  • Increased risk of infections (because of a shortage of white blood cells)
  • Easy bleeding or bruising, even after minor cuts or injuries (due to a shortage of blood platelets)
Jan 30, 2019

What are the side effects of bladder chemo wash? ›

It's common to have flu-like symptoms, such as fever, aches, chills, and fatigue, which can last for 2 to 3 days after treatment. It also commonly causes a burning feeling in the bladder, the need to urinate often, and even blood in the urine.

What stage is Mibc? ›

MIBC is when the cancer has grown far into the wall of the bladder (Stages T2 and beyond). For patients with MIBC, the overall prognosis (how the disease may progress) is dependent on stage and treatment.

What is the biggest risk factor for the development of bladder transitional cell carcinoma? ›

The most common risk factor for bladder cancer is cigarette smoking, although smoking cigars and pipes can also raise the risk of developing bladder cancer. Smokers are 4 to 7 times more likely to develop bladder cancer than nonsmokers.

What percentage of bladder tumors are low grade? ›

In 2021, it was estimated that approximately 63 000 new cases of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) would be diagnosed, and approximately 50% of those cases would involve low-grade papillary Ta (low-grade Ta) disease.

How long can you live after bladder cancer diagnosis? ›

Survival for all stages of bladder cancer

around 75 out of every 100 (around 75%) survive their cancer for 1 year or more after diagnosis. almost 55 out of every 100 (almost 55%) survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they are diagnosed.

Can you cure muscle invasive bladder cancer? ›

Treating muscle-invasive cancer with chemotherapy prior to cystectomy is associated with better survival outcomes; thus, the combination of preoperative ("neoadjuvant") chemotherapy and surgery is widely recognized as the standard of care for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Does sugar feed bladder cancer? ›

False! Our bodies are made up of healthy and cancer cells that convert sugar, or glucose, into energy. There haven't been any studies that show sugar consumption makes cancer worse.

What fruit is good for bladder cancer? ›

Antioxidant-packed citrus fruits like oranges, grapefruit, limes, and lemons help lower your cancer risk. They help keep your bladder clean and functioning properly. Plus, having these antioxidant-rich foods in your arsenal is just what you need now for a stronger immune system.

What vitamins are good for bladder cancer? ›

Nutritional Tips for Bladder Cancer Patients
  • Vitamin A: 9,000 IU.
  • Vitamin C: 500 mg.
  • Vitamin D3: 400 IU.
  • Vitamin E: 100 IU.
  • Vitamin B1: 0.37 mg.
  • Vitamin B2: 0.5 mg.
  • Vitamin B3: 5mg.
  • Vitamin B6: 25 mg.

What is the best tea for bladder cancer? ›

Green tea and green tea polyphenols (GTPs) are reported to inhibit carcinogenesis and malignant behavior in several diseases. Various in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that GTPs suppress the incidence and development of bladder cancer.

What is the best herb for bladder cancer? ›

Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been found to have many medicinal benefits. Now, an enriched extract of the Somalian Frankincense herb Boswellia carteri has been shown to kill off bladder cancer cells.

Is coffee good for bladder cancer? ›

There was an increased risk of bladder cancer related to higher coffee consumption among studies with fewer cases (RR high-vs-low = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.05–1.81) and among those with poorer adjustment for smoking (RR high-vs-low = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.14–1.93).

How many hours is bladder surgery? ›

Bladder removal is a major surgery. This surgery can take anywhere between four and six hours, depending upon your prior surgical history, or maybe other intra-operative findings that we find during the operation.

How long are you down after bladder surgery? ›

You will probably be able to go back to work in 1 to 2 weeks. But you will need at least 6 weeks to fully recover before returning to all normal activities. You must avoid heavy lifting and strenuous activities during this time. These might put extra pressure on your bladder while you recover.

How long is hospital stay for bladder removal? ›

If you have an open procedure, you'll likely be in the hospital for 5 to 7 days. With a minimally invasive procedure, your recovery time in the hospital may be shorter.

Is bladder surgery high risk? ›

The standard of care for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy, the surgical removal of the bladder. However, this is a major operation, with a significant risk of complications and potentially, even death.

Do you need chemo after bladder surgery? ›

Some patients get chemo after surgery to kill any cancer cells left after surgery that are too small to see. Chemo given after cystectomy may help patients stay cancer-free longer, but so far it's not clear if it helps them live longer. If cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, radiation may be needed after surgery.

How long do you need a catheter after bladder surgery? ›

You may have the catheter in for 1 day or longer. Your surgeon will decide after the surgery. Before you leave the hospital, the nurses in the day surgery unit will show you how to take care of the catheter and give you the supplies you need to take home.

What is the best drink for urine infection? ›

Water is by far the best beverage choice for someone with a UTI. Drinking at least 12 8-ounce cups of water each day while you have an infection will help flush the bacteria from your system and can speed up the healing process.

How do you strengthen your bladder wall? ›

Pelvic floor exercises, also known as Kegel exercises, help hold urine in the bladder. Daily exercises can strengthen these muscles, which can help keep urine from leaking when you sneeze, cough, lift, laugh, or have a sudden urge to urinate.

How can I reduce my bladder wall thickening naturally? ›

The following lifestyle changes may help reduce the occurrence of bladder infections:
  1. Drink six to eight glasses of water per day.
  2. Urinate as soon as you feel the need. ...
  3. Take showers instead of baths.
  4. Wear cotton underwear.
  5. Change your underwear daily.
  6. Urinate before and after sexual activity.
May 18, 2018

Can bladder cancer be caused by stress? ›

Chronic psychological stress has been shown to intervene in immune function and play a role in the tumor growth and progression in diverse carcinomas. However, the effects of chronic psychological stress on the biological behaviors of bladder cancer and possible underlying mechanisms are unknown.

What is the 5-year survival for muscle invasive bladder cancer? ›

If the tumor is invasive but has not yet spread outside the bladder, the 5-year survival rate is 70%. About 33% of bladders cancers are diagnosed at this stage. If the cancer extends through the bladder to the surrounding tissue or has spread to nearby lymph nodes or organs, the 5-year survival rate is 38%.

What is the 6 week treatment for bladder cancer? ›

The combination of BCG and TURBT is the most effective treatment for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. BCG is given once a week for six weeks, starting 2–4 weeks after TURBT surgery. It is put directly into the bladder through a catheter.

Where does invasive bladder cancer spread? ›

Where can bladder cancer spread to? Not all bladder cancers will spread. But If it does it's most likely to spread to the structures close to the bladder, such as the ureters, urethra, prostate, vagina, or into the pelvis.

What is the number one cause of bladder cancer? ›

Smoking is the single biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. This is because tobacco contains cancer-causing (carcinogenic) chemicals.

What emotions cause bladder cancer? ›

Recent MD Anderson research reveals that depression and certain age-related biomarkers could affect a bladder cancer patient's disease progression and likelihood of survival.


1. Understanding Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer | Indications for Cystectomy
(Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network)
2. Success Story | Muscle Invasive Bladder Carcinoma
(Ayu Health Hospitals)
3. Updates in Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
(Grand Rounds in Urology)
4. UH Urology Lecture Series Presents: Dr. Calaway "Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer"
(Case Urology)
5. Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC) - Bladder Removal
(Wessex Bladder Cancer Support)
6. Understanding Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer | Quality of Life and Q&A
(Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Duane Harber

Last Updated: 01/06/2023

Views: 6254

Rating: 4 / 5 (71 voted)

Reviews: 86% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Duane Harber

Birthday: 1999-10-17

Address: Apt. 404 9899 Magnolia Roads, Port Royceville, ID 78186

Phone: +186911129794335

Job: Human Hospitality Planner

Hobby: Listening to music, Orienteering, Knapping, Dance, Mountain biking, Fishing, Pottery

Introduction: My name is Duane Harber, I am a modern, clever, handsome, fair, agreeable, inexpensive, beautiful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.