In this explorer, we learn to identify the main organelles in a eukaryotic cell and describe their functions.
Each plant, animal, fungus and protistine of the planet consists of at least one eukaryotic cell. Although the cells of these organisms are very different, most of them have certain basic properties in common. Cewish structures found in cells (or subcellular structures).What performs specific functions is known as organelles. The types and the frequency of the organelles that have a cell are the first indication of what type of cell it is and what it can do.
An organelle is a subcellular structure that performs a certain function.
The cells can be divided into two large groups: eukaryotic and prokaryot. Figure 1 shows a simple diagram.
The most notable characteristic of a eukaryotic cell is the nucleus. The possession of a cell core has many other structures with other important works.We Chama cells such as those consisting of in animal cells. Let's see the different organelles in a typical animal cell,as shown in Figure 2.
The cell membrane (plasma) is the outer layer of the cell. It makes the edge that distinguishes the cell from its surroundings. Fospholipid -bicamada because there are two molecular layers (Bi- It means "two"). We can also see different types of other molecules, such as: easily not as much as others.
Termination -Chave: Cell membrane
The cell membrane consists of a phospholipid bicam and includes molecules and separates the internal and external environment from the cell.
The cytoplasm is a fluid of gelatin that fills the cell. It is mainly together with proteins, ions and nutrients. Sometimes it is an organ, the cytoplasm is the liquid in which all the organelles are hung. The cytoplasm and the cell nucleus sometimesThey are called protoplasm.
Termination -Chave: Cytoplasm
The cytoplasm is a liquid that fills the internal space of the cell and is the place of many chemical reactions.
Cytoskeleton is a protein network throughout the cytoplasm. The termCyto- It means "cell", so that the cytoskeleton literally translates into the cell skeleton. Cytoskeleton consists of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. These proteins maintain other organelles in the place, so not only fluctuates by chance in the cytoplasm. You can see a sketch that can see a sketch when you see a sketch that a sketch is watching a sketch. You can see that a sketch can see a sketch. You can see that a sketch displaces a sketch. You can see that a sketch displaces a sketch.You can see that a sketch displaces a sketch. You can see that a sketch displaces a sketch. You can see that a sketch follows a sketch. You can see that a sketch continues to a sketch. It can be seen that a sketch passes through a sketch simply in theFigure 4. The cytoskeleto also acts as gangs with which the organelles can move from one place to another. The cytoskeleton allows certain cells, for example, species that belong to a genus of cell eukaryotes of cell Individualamoebato move. It also plays an important role in cell division.
Termination -Chave: Cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments in the cell that positions the organelle, offers structural support and allows some cells to move.
The nucleus contains and protects the genetic or DNA material, which is involved in long cables around protein. These DNA molecules and its associated proteins are called chromatin. The nucleus also controls the expression of this DNA.The basic nucleus diagram isSample in Figure 5.
Termination -Chave: Nucleus
The nucleus is an essential part of eukaryotic cells and organelle that stores and protects DNA.
The nucleus has a double membrane, which means that there are actually two phospholipid bicamas instead of only one, as you can see in Figure 5.
The central membrane, sometimes also known as a central shell, has special openings that are known as main pores. These central pores allow some large molecules such as RNA and proteins, but not chromatin. The nucleus contains its own special filling, which is knownAs nucleoplasma, which is very similar, that it is very similar, that it is very similar, which is very similar to the cytoplasm. It also has a structural protein scaffoldThe main component of ribosomes.
Example 1: Identification of the nucleus parts in an electronic micro woman
The micro woman shows a cell under an electronic transmission microscope. A circular nucleus is visible.
Which of the following isnoPart of the structure of a nucleus?
- Hair Ren Polia
- Nuclear crest
The nucleus is characteristic of the eukaryotic cell. Distinguish the eukaryotic cells of prokaryotic cells that have no nucleus.
The main function of the nucleus is to save and protect DNA, which is wrapped around proteins to form long hair, the chromat called chromatin, is surrounded by a nuclear case that is a double membrane, which means that two phospholipid two -fuses areInstead of only one. This double membrane has special openings that are called central pores that make certain molecules easily pass. In the medium of the nucleus there is a dense region called nucleolus, which is responsible for the implementation of the RHNA or the ribosomal RNA,of which ribosomes are mainly performed. The nucleus is full of a rich liquid substance that is filled by a protein network known as the central matrix, nucleoplasma and scaffolding and scaffolding.
The termCristaIn fact, it relates to a folding in a phospholipid membrane that creates smaller compartments, as can be seen in mitochondria. The nucleus has no coat of arms.
With this information, we can conclude that the structure that is not part of the nucleus is the nucleus comb.
The ribosomes are small structures responsible for the production of protein that can be found freely in the cytoplasm or bind to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.Acids called polypeptides chain. This polypeptideFrom Golgi as in Figure 6, these subunits consist of rnna or ribosomal RNA, which consist of nucleolus and proteins.
The ribosomes are not surrounded by a phospholipid bicama, so they are known as non -membrane organelles (non -rubble). In fact, some scientists argue that they cannot be considered organelles.
Unlike other membrane organelles (membrane), ribosomes can be found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ribosomes of eukaryotic cells are larger than those of prokaryotic cells.SIt is the unit used to measure ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes are called asLos 80Ribosomas, while they are called prokaryotic ribosomes70 sRibosomes
Term -Chave: Ribosomas
The ribosomes are not -membros -mbros that act as a place of protein synthesis in the cell.
Example 2: Remember an organization of a description
Declare the eukaryotic organela described: this organelle contains RNA and is the place of protein synthesis.
This question contains a description of an organellaAn eukaryotic cell: eukaryotic cells generally have many of the organelles, prokaryotic cells along with several more complex organelles connected to the membrane.
The main note here is that this organella is the place of protein synthesis. The organization responsible for protein synthesis in all cells, prokaryotes or eukaryotes is ribosome. Ribosomes are small organelles that consist of two subunits. These subunits consistIn RRNA and proteins, ribosomes translate the genetic code into an MRNA molecule in a polypeptide or an amino acid cable. This polypeptide folds into a functional protein.
This means that the organelle contains RNA and is the place of protein synthesis that is ribosome.
The endoplasmic reticulum, usually to shorten, is a folded network membrane connected to the eukaryotic cell.
The outer surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum has many associated ribosomes. Then you can say that it plays a role in protein synthesis. It also gives its united and irregular names. More flat and is connected to the outer membrane of the nucleus. The main function of theErrors is to double proteins in their final form.
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have ribosomes on its surface, so it becomes smooth. These passages generally have a tubular shape and are generally eliminated from the nucleus. The switch that plays the main one involved in the conversion of toxins into less toxic compounds thanThey can be excreted.
Term -Cove: rough endoplasmic reticulum
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a series of folded membranes or flat bags that are covered with ribosomes and are associated with protein production.
Term -chave: soft endoplasmic reticulum
The soft endoplasmic reticulum is a series of tube structures with folded membranes that are not covered with ribosomes and are connected to lipid production.
For this reason, the Golgi device, also called Golgi Corps, is sometimes known as Cell post. In plant cells, there are dispersion matrices of smaller golgi vesicles, which are called dictiosomes. Figure 8 shows how the reticulumEndoplasmic and the Golgi apparatus interact in a typical animal cell.
Proteins and lipids are delivered from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi device in transport bubbles. A gallbladder is a small package of membrane materials in the cell. On the other hand. Finally, in new secretion bubbles for deliveryof materials outside the cell through exocytosis or for the formation of lysosomes.
Term -chave: Golgi's apparatus (Golgi's body)
The packets or proteins of the Golgi device obtained from the endoplasmic reticulum deliver them throughout the cell.
Lysosomes specialize and membrane vesicles made by the Golgi.Rompen and recycle cells of different components in components that the cell can use again.
Term -Chave: Lisomas
Lysosomes are special vesicles that are full of enzymes that break and recycle old cellular structures or components.
The mitochondria (singular: mitochondria) are the main city of the cells that breathe in the eukaryotic cell. Mitochondria are responsible for the conversion of glucose into usable cellular energy in the form of ATP. For this reason, mitochondria are often called strengthof waist. It has two membrane layers, as you can see in Figure 9. It has a soft outer membrane and a folded internal membrane. The internal membrane folds are called Cristae and these wrinkles increase the area of the surface available for reactions for reactionsof breathing. Space within the folded internal membrane is known as matrix.
Termination -Chave: mitochondrias (singular: mitochondrio)
Mitochondria are the main city of cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells.
The cell membrane, the cytoplasm, the cytoskeleton, the nucleus, the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus and the mitochondria can be found in most eukaryotic cells. This includes animal and herbal cells.
However, plants differ from animals. They have different properties. For example, make their own nutrients and be hospitalized patients. This means that plant cells have different characteristics from animal cells that support these different properties.
Let's look at some organelles found in plant cells, but not in animal cells.
The cell wall is a rigid structure around the cell membrane, as shown in Figure 10, support for the plant.vertical and point its leaves to the sun.
Termination -Chave: Cell Pared
The cell wall is a rigid outer layer that structurally supports the plant's cell.
Example 3: Identification of the functions of eukaryotic organelles
The following is a list of functions of Organella Eucariota.
- Lipid Synthesize and Transport
- Provision of mechanical resistance for a plant cell
- Provision of location for aerobic respiratory stages
- Synthesize protein
- Maintaining the shape and structure of a plant cell
- What functions in the list provided are carried out by the soft endoplasmic reticulum?
- What functions in the list provided are carried out by mitochondria?
- What functions in the list provided are carried out by the cell wall?
This question lists several functions or works of cell organelles and asks us to correspond to these functions with the organelles in each question. A or more of the functions listed may be in the answer.
To answer this question, it may be more effective to determine which organela describes the functions listed, and then use this information to answer our three questions.
The synchronization and transport of lipids is the work of the soft endoplasmic reticulum. Endoplasmic reticulum is a series of folded membranes that form a network of compartments interconnected in the cell. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is with ribosomes and is connected and transported to productionof protein. This is easy to remember because ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the place of protein synthesis. The soft endoplasmic reticulum, on the other hand, is responsible for the production and transport of lipids.
Mechanical resistance for a plant cell is the work of the cell wall. Delive its general structure to the plant.
The provision of a place for aerobic breath steps is the work of mitochondria.aerobicThis means that a precise oxygen process occurs. Mitochondria use oxygen and glucose to create ATP, and in a process that is known as cellular breathing is carbon dioxide and water as subsequent products.
Protein synthesization is the work of ribosomes. Ribosomes are small structures made of two subunits, which translated MRNA or messenger -nna in an amino acid chain called polypéptide. This polypeptide is usually formed and summarized in a functional protein.
Maintaining the shape and structure of the plant cell is the work of the cell wall and the cytoskeleton. It can also be seen based on the large central vacuola in a plant cell, press and fill the room inside the rigid cell wall.
With this information on the oro alele functions described, we can correspond to the functions with the organelles in the questions.
The soft endoplasmic reticulum synthesized and has lipids or only option.
Mitochondria offer a place for aerobic encouragement stages or only III options.
The cell wall offers mechanical resistance and guarantees its shape and structure or options II and V.
The plastids are available in plant cells, but not in animal cells. They have a double membrane, so they are surrounded by two phospholipid two -fuses instead of one.Chromoplasts. Chromoplastos are plastids that produce and store pigments such as red pigments, yellow and oranges that use fruits and flourish their bright colors. Leukoplasts are white or colorless plastids that do not have pigments or storage materials such as resistance and fat.
Chloroplasts are plastids that contain chlorophyll green pigment. Chloroplasts are the place of photosynthesis in which plant cells use energy under sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water dioxide into glucose and oxygen. This glucose is used laterIn cell breathing for mitochondria.
The chloroplasts shown in Figure 11 have an outer and internal membrane. The liquid inside the internal membrane is called stroma. In stroke, the tilacoids are called money (singular: samples).
Termination -Chave: Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts are the place of photosynthesis in the plant cell.
Plant cells have a large central vacuum.Cell. Also fill the cell, press the content of the outward cytoplasm and help access sunlight.
Termination -Chave: Large Vacuumo (Central)
The great vacuum stores the cell juice and guarantees the plant cell of its structure.
There are also some ornaul cases found in animal cells, but not in plant cells. Centriol are organists united by membrane that are in a region of the cell near the nucleus called Cenossoma, a region that is not available in plant cells.In Figure 12 we can see a longitudinal and crossed view of a centriole in a typical animal cell.
Each centriole consists of nine groups of microtubules that are arranged in Trillizos (or three), as can be seen in Figure 12.There is associated fibers between each of the nine microtubules.
During the cell division, the filaments, which are called spindle fibers, extend from centriveCenhosomas
Organists in a cell meet the needs of the cell and also determine what the cell can do. While all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria, animal cells that consume more energy, such as muscle cells, more mitochondria, cells that are not exposedIn light, like root cells, they do not have chloroplasts. You can say a lot about the life of a cell of certain organelles described in Table 1.
tabla 1: Summarizes a table where certain organelles occur in large quantities of the body.
|Organela||Where it is abundant|
|Smooth endoplasmic reticulum||Liver cells (hepatocytes)|
|Rough endoplasmic reticulum||Cells in organs that secrete enzymes|
(Exocrine glands) or hormones
|Golgi||Salivary gland cells during secretion|
Enzymes (exocrine glands)
The following diagram summarizes the types of cell structures that we have discussed in this explorer.
Now let's review what we have learned about the structure of eukaryotic cells in this explorer.
- The typical eukaryotic cell organelles are the cell membrane, the nucleus, the cytoplasm, the ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), the Golgi apparatus, the lysosomes, the mitochondria and the cytoskeleton.
- Specific organelles for plant cells are large vacuum cleaners, cell wall and chloroplasts.
- Each organela has a structure that is directly related to its function.