Health and safety regulations and recommendations applicable to non-human primate research facilities (2023)

After completing a risk assessment, the last step before developing an occupational health and safety risk management plan is to understand the relevant occupational health and safety standards. Managers of facilities where non-human primates are used in research, teaching or testing must not only be aware of workplace hazards and associated risks when developing their OHSP, but must also understand applicable standards and policies and maintain them. These requirements can be challenging in the sense that multiple authorities or regulations may apply in a given institution. Regulation may be mandatory at both the federal and state levels and may depend on whether the work with the non-human primates in question is carried out at a federal facility or at a federally funded facility. This chapter describes important standards and guidelines and provides contact information for organizations that can provide guidance and training on security standards. Much of the information in this chapter can be found atGuide to the care and use of laboratory animals.(NRK 1996) yOccupational safety and health protection in the care and use of laboratory animals(NRK 1997) and is repeated here for simplicity.


Occupational Health and Safety Law

The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970 requires all non-governmental employers to provide a safe and healthy workplace for their employees. It also provided for the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The law directs OSHA to develop and issue standards through a public rule-making process. Employers must comply with these workplace health and safety standards, just as they would any legal requirement (Blosser 1992).

The most important federal standards for occupational safety can be found in OSHA Standard 29 CFR Part 1910 (; 29CFR standards). This document contains many sections relevant to work done in facilities where non-human primates are used in research, teaching and testing. For example, OSHA's standard for bloodborne pathogens (29 CFR 1910.1030) requires facilities to provide hepatitis B vaccines to workers who handle blood, organs, or other tissues from laboratory animals infected with the hepatitis virus. B Provide and provide the employee with a confidential medical examination report immediately after contact with animal tissue contaminated with a bloodborne pathogen. The OSHA Standard for Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory (29 CFR 1910.1450) requires medical surveillance when surveillance indicates exposure that routinely exceeds the action level of an OSHA-regulated substance, such as: B. A time-weighted average of 0.75 ppm or a short-term exposure value of 2.0 ppm for formaldehyde (29 CFR 1910.1048). The OSHA standard governing the use of compressed gases is 29 CFR 1910.101, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) standards are at 29 CFR 1910.132-1910.140, and electrical system requirements are at 29 CFR 1910.301-1910.330, although they may be Other sections of 29 CFR 1910 also apply.

It is important to note that OSHA standards are not exhaustive. They do not directly address every hazard or risk that exists in every workplace. To address hazards not covered by a given standard, OSHA may cite Section 5(a)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (also known as 29 USC § 654(a)(1)); This provision is called a general obligation because it imposes a general obligation on employers to arrange workplaces so that they are "free from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or serious bodily injury" (Blosser 1992).

Occupational Health and Safety Authority

OSHA ( is the federal agency charged with protecting the health of workers and preventing occupational injuries, occupational illnesses and deaths. Although OSHA and NIOSH were created by the same act of Congress, they are different agencies with different responsibilities. OSHA is responsible for creating and enforcing occupational health and safety standards. Establishes occupational health and safety standards and monitors them through controls and fines. It also offers free onsite support to identify and remedy hazards and offers assistance in establishing OHS programs.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

NIOSH ( is the federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations to prevent work-related illnesses and injuries. NIOSH and OSHA often work together to protect the safety and health of workers.

NIOSH can be an excellent source of information on occupational health and safety for institutions and individuals. Publish hazard-specific guidelines ("hazard identifiers") asCercopithecin herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection by eye contact, which is available online contains a summary of the main points, a description of the hazard, recommendations for preventing B virus infection, recommended measures, and references to further information.

Protection of safety and health at work in federal institutions

Section 19 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, also known as 29 USC 668, requires federal agency leaders to establish and maintain comprehensive and effective occupational safety and health programs that meet the standards established by OSHA for nonprofit employers. (eg, 29 CFR 1910), although Enforcement Inspection # is detailed. Presidential Executive Order 12196, issued in 1980, further defines the responsibilities of federal agencies, including inspection requirements for federal occupational safety and health programs. Federal agency inspection requirements are listed in 29 CFR 1960; For example, inspectors must be occupational health or safety professionals or others with sufficient training or experience to identify hazards and propose general mitigation procedures (29 CFR 1960.28(a)); and all agency workplaces must be inspected annually, with more frequent inspections conducted at workplaces where there is an increased risk of accident, injury, or illness (29 CFR 1960.25(c)). In addition, the Office of Federal Agency Programs (OFAP), which acts as a “mini-OSHA” for federal employees, is responsible for overseeing federal occupational safety and health programs. Essentially, federal agencies must meet the same OSHA standards as non-state employers; However, they are inspected by OFAP rather than OSHA and are not subject to fines.

Health and safety requirements for government-funded facilities

To bePublic Health Policy on the Care and Humane Use of Laboratory Animals(OLAW 2000) requires institutions receiving federal funding to have an occupational health and safety program as part of their overall animal care and use program. PHS policy requires institutions to use theGuide to the care and use of laboratory animals.(NRK 1996) as the basis of an institutional program of activities with animals. ThisManualcontains OHS guidelines for hazard identification and risk assessment; personal training; personal hygiene; facilities, procedures and monitoring; personal protection; and medical assessment and preventive medicine for staff. ThisManualwill be discussed later in this chapter.

Das Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW), im Office of Extramural Research at the National Institutes of Health ( plays an important role in the implementation of the PHS Directive. OLAW oversees compliance with PHS policies for research conducted or supported by any PHS component through Animal Welfare Assurances approval. Any institution receiving federal funds must provide a written guarantee to OLAW. The Assurance Statement describes how the institution will comply with the PHS policy, including how it will comply with the OHS policies described inManual. Once OLAW accepts a Statement of Assurance, the institution is considered a "secure" program. OLAW encourages programs to adhere to applicable industry standards, such as those of the National Research Council.Occupational safety and health protection in the care and use of laboratory animals(NRK 1997).

OLAW also requires Assured Program IACUCs to conduct Mid-Year Program Reviews and provides a recommended checklist to assist IACUCs with reviews. The OHS portion of the checklist, available online, is as follows (

  1. Institutional program for a safe and healthy work environment

    • Program created and implemented

    • includes all employees who work in laboratory animal facilities

    • based on hazard identification and risk assessment

    • Staff training (e.g. zoonoses, hazards, pregnancy/illness/immunosuppression)

      (Video) Working Safely with Nonhuman Primates

    • personal hygiene procedures (e.g. work clothes, eating/drinking/smoking rules)

    • Procedures for the use, storage and disposal of biological, chemical and physical hazardous substances

    • Specific personal protection procedures (e.g. showering/locker rooms, injury prevention).

  2. Medical assessment and preventive medicine program for employees

    • Pre-placement assessment, including health history

    • Vaccinations (e.g. rabies and tetanus) and tests if needed

    • if necessary, monitoring of zoonoses (eg Q fever, tularemia, hantavirus, plague)

    • Procedures for reporting and treating injuries, including bites, etc.

  3. Special precautions for personnel working with primates

    • Tuberculosis screening includes all exposed persons

    • Training and implementation of procedures for bites and scratches

    • Cercopithecin Herpesvirus 1 (B-Virus) Education

AAALAC International, in its review of accredited institutions, found that the most common deficiencies in the OHSP were: 1) it was not based on a hazard identification/risk assessment and 2) there was inadequate personal protection and hygiene. Less common deficiencies were identified in: 1) staff training, 2) facilities, procedures and supervision, and 3) medical assessment/preventive medicine (DeLong and others 2001). For aspects of OHSP that AAALAC International considers when evaluating animal care and use programs, see the program description at

Federal requirements for the importation and quarantine of non-human primates and recommendations for the protection of workers

The provisions of 42 CFR 71 are intended to prevent the introduction, transmission, and spread of communicable diseases from foreign countries to United States states or possessions. Section 42 CFR 71.53 specifically addresses the importation of live non-human primates and restricts this activity to registered importers. Live non-human primates may be imported into the United States and sold, resold or otherwise distributed for scientific, educational or bona fide display purposes only.

The Division of Global Migration and Quarantine of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( is responsible for preventing the introduction and spread of zoonotic diseases that can cause severe outbreaks of communicable diseases in humans (such as Marburg/Ebola, monkeypox, yellow fever and tuberculosis). The focus is on minimizing exposure to imported non-human primates during transport and during the mandatory 31-day quarantine period and vigilant control of zoonoses.

Importers of non-human primates must register with the CDC and certify that the imported non-human primates will be used for scientific, educational or exhibition purposes as defined in the regulations. They must also take disease control measures and isolate non-human primates for 31 days. Importers must report suspected zoonoses in non-human primates or workers and keep records of the distribution of non-human primates. As of this writing, the CDC program has 28 registered importers of non-human primates.

CDC's Import Quarantine Program activities include developing recommendations for disease control measures, inspecting quarantine facilities, controlling incoming shipments, evaluating disease control measures, reviewing animal health records, and examining disease reports. Occupational health and safety measures supported by the CDC for the importation and quarantine of non-human primates include:

  1. Limit access to imported animals and tissues during transit and quarantine

  2. Implementation of an occupational health and safety program for employees:

    1. Education in prevention and zoonotic risk

    2. tuberculosis skin test

      (Video) Petrie-Flom Center | Non-Human Primates in Research: Legal and Ethical Considerations

    3. Respiratory Protection Program:

      • medical fitness

      • fit test

      • Training

    4. Use of proper PPE

  3. Monitor worker illnesses and injuries.

Additional requirements and recommendations for import of registered non-human primates and quarantine activities related to the establishment and operation of facilities, incorporation of disease control measures into all standard operating procedures that pose risk, engineering of controls, waste handling precautions and PPE recommendations for all Activities. during the quarantine starting with the animals boarding a plane.

Requirements related to the import and export of non-human primate material

National Import and Export Center

The National Import and Export Center (NCIE) of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture has regulatory authority over the importation of human or non-human primate material that is produced in culture from tissue or is a potential or actual zoonotic pathogen. For more information on APHIS import and export requirements,

US Health Service

The US Public Health Service (USPHS) is responsible for all human and non-human primate materials (USPHS 42 CFR - Part 71 Foreign Quarantine. Part 71.54 Etiologic Agents, Hosts, and Vectors). Packages containing pathogens or vectors of foreign origin must have an import authorization issued by the US Public Health Service. The USPHS can be reached at: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Office of Biosafety, Atlanta, GA 30333, or by calling 404-639-3883.

US Department of Transportation

The Department of Transportation (DOT) has regulations regarding the transportation of hazardous materials that include live animals or infected tissue. The DOT can be contacted; Questions may be emailed to DOT's information specialists atvog.tod .tso@stnemmoc.tod.


The Occupational Safety and Health Act allows states to establish their own programs for issuing and enforcing occupational safety and health standards. These state programs are subject to OSHA certification. States may also, subject to OSHA approval, exercise jurisdiction over safety and health matters for which OSHA does not have a federal standard. Government standards must be at least as stringent as OSHA standards. When OSHA adopts a new standard, state programs must adopt corresponding rules. As of this writing, the following states (and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) have chosen to administer their own OSHA-approved programs:







(Video) Protecting Nonhuman Primates Exploited as Pets: Sanctuaries and Solutions







New Mexico

North Caroline


Carolina do sul








Guide to the care and use of laboratory animals.

As described above, theGuide to the care and use of laboratory animals.(NRK 1996) is determined by PHS policy as the basis for institutional animal care and use programs, including OHS programs. Chapter 1 ofManual, “Institutional Policies and Responsibilities” provides important guidance on occupational health and safety. ThisManualEmphasizes that an effective program must be based on strong administrative support and interactions between various institutional programs, including the research program (represented by the Researcher), the animal care and use program (represented by the veterinarian and the IACUC), and the environment program of health. and occupational health safety, services, and administration program (eg, human resources, finance, and facility maintenance). Day-to-day safety in the workplace is the responsibility of the laboratory or facility manager (e.g., principal investigator, facility manager, or laboratory veterinarian) and depends on maintaining safe equipment and facilities and implementing safe work practices by all personnel. employees. . ThisManualalso provides guidance on hazard identification and risk assessment; personal training; personal hygiene; facilities, procedures and monitoring; experimentation with animals with dangers; personal protection; and medical assessment and preventive medicine for staff.1

Occupational safety and health protection in the care and use of laboratory animals

Occupational safety and health protection in the care and use of laboratory animals(NRK 1997) contains guidelines for the occupational safety of facility employees, visitors, and students who may be exposed to hazards when working with laboratory animals. The Office for Laboratory Animal Welfare strongly encourages institutions to adhere to the standards set out in this report, which is also available online.2The general concepts described apply to many categories of institutions: academic, industrial, and government research institutions; biomedical and agricultural research institutions; and medical and veterinary educational institutions. The report includes the following specific recommendations:

  • We recommend that each institution make a concerted effort to address the occupational health, safety, and disease and injury risks associated with the care and use of research animals and expand its occupational health and safety program as necessary to reduce risks to an acceptable level. .

    (Video) Why Do We Study Nonhuman Primates, and How is This Research Regulated

  • We recommend that an institution's senior staff demonstrate a personal commitment to a safe and healthy workplace, delegate clearly defined responsibilities to those authorized to provide and direct institutional resources, and establish mechanisms to monitor the success of the occupational health and safety program. .

  • We recommend that each institution develop a multidisciplinary approach to occupational health and safety that allows for ongoing assessment of potential hazards and risks in the workplace for employees working with animals.

  • We recommend that the determination of health care needs be based on the type of risks associated with the care and use of laboratory animals and the intensity and frequency with which employees are exposed to these risks.

  • We do not recommend serum collection and storage as a standard component of an occupational health and safety program. They are only of value to workers who have a significant likelihood of contracting a workplace-acquired infection with a serologically controllable pathogen.

  • We do not recommend physical examination as the primary monitoring tool for periodic health assessments. We recommend that a comprehensive medical history based on knowledge of workplace hazards be used for this purpose.

Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories

Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories(CDC-NIH 1999) is an important source of guidelines for the safe handling of cells and tissues from infected animals and non-human primates. Contains detailed descriptions of animal biosafety criteria, infectious agents, and biosafety cabinets. This document can be accessed online or requested from the Government Press Office.3

Association for Laboratory Evaluation and Accreditation Animal Care International

The Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC International) is a private, not-for-profit organization that promotes the humane treatment of research animals through a voluntary accreditation program. This confidential peer review assesses the quality of all aspects of an animal care and use program, including animal husbandry, veterinary care, institutional policies, and facilities where animals are housed and used. More specifically, AAALAC International carefully reviews occupational health and safety programs and evaluates their design, scope, and effectiveness in relation to the type of animal testing conducted. AAALAC International's standards are based on the regulations of each country, the principles described in theGuide to the care and use of laboratory animals.(NRK 1996) and other generally accepted reference resources. AAALAC International can be contacted online atwww.aaalac.orgor by emailgro.calaaa@tidercca.

American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, not-for-profit organization that administers and coordinates the United States' voluntary systems of standardization and conformity assessment. The Institute's mission is "to improve the global competitiveness of American business and the quality of life in the United States by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems and protecting their integrity."

Of particular interest to facility managers using non-human primates in research, teaching and education are ANSI standards Z358.1-1998, "Eye Wash Equipment and Emergency Shower" and Z87.1-1989. (R1998), "Occupational and Educational Eyewash and Shower Equipment." and mask.” ANSI is available online at

ASTM International

Founded in 1898, ASTM International (formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials) is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world. The organization's mission is to be “the leading developer and provider of voluntary consensus standards, related technical information, and services of internationally recognized quality and applicability that promote public health and safety and the overall quality of life; contribute to the reliability of materials, products, systems and services; and facilitate national, regional and international trade”. Familiarity with international ASTM standards for liquid strength and permeability is an asset when researching and selecting personal protective clothing. ASTM is available online at

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) is a membership organization that “promotes the health and safety of workers through education and the development and dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge”. ACGIH®is one of the industry's leading publishing sources, with more than 400 occupational and environmental health and safety titles, including TLVs.®) and Biological Exposure Indexes (BEIs®). You can contact ACGIH® online

International Air Transport Association

Members of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) are airline suppliers and service providers who participate through membership programs that provide a forum through which these companies develop solutions for the industry. The IATA Live Animal Regulations are the globally recognized standards for the carriage of live animals by commercial airlines. Countries such as member states of the European Union apply IATA regulations for the transport of live animals. Government agencies such as the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the governing bodies of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species also enforce regulations for packaging endangered species for international transport. It is important that shipping, receiving and handling personnel, as well as everyone else involved in the transport of live animals, are familiar with IATA. IATA can be contacted online


Free copies of the report can be requested atwww​ To beManualis also available online atwww​



(Video) Nonhuman Primates in Research: The Good, Bad, and Ugly

Online address:www​​/bmbl4/bmbl4toc.htm; Government Printable Address: Superintendent of Documents, USA GPO, Washington, DC 20402 or online athttps://orders.Access​


What are the laws pertaining to nonhuman primate pet ownership in the US? ›

Legal Status

Federal: Aside from the ban on importing primates for the pet trade, there are no federal laws governing the sale or keeping of primates as pets.

What are some of the challenges and restrictions to studying nonhuman culture? ›

The study of nonhuman species often challenges our notions of what makes humans unique. These challenges include the growing recognition that other species possess rudiments of “culture”—regional variation in behavior that is not rooted in genetics or ecology and is transmitted beyond its originators.

Why is the study of non-human primate behavior important to understand modern humans? ›

Non-human primates alert us to the many, often uncanny similarities between humans and other animals, and the behaviors that define human distinctiveness. Studies of monkeys and apes in their natural settings in particular help us to model the ecological and social circumstances under which novel human behaviors arose.

What is the most common non-human primate used in research? ›


The NHPs used in medical research are mainly macaques, a type of monkey that includes 23 species mostly found in Africa.

Who is responsible for the endangerment of non-human primates? ›

Globally, agriculture is the principal threat, but secondary threats vary by region. For example, livestock farming and ranching negatively affect 59% of primate species in the Neotropics. In contrast, in mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Asia, hunting and trapping affect 54 to 90% of the species.

What is the primate safety Act? ›

The legislation, had it been enacted, would have modified the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981 to treat nonhuman primates as prohibited wildlife species, allowing exemptions for zoos and research facilities. The bill was passed by the House of Representatives but never received a floor vote in the United States Senate.

What are the limitations of non-human primate models? ›

Limitations of genetic research with nonhuman primates include cost and availability. However, the ability to manipulate both genetic and environmental factors in captive primate populations indicates the promise of genetic research with these important animal models for illuminating complex disease processes.

Should non-human primates be used in research? ›

Non-human primates are used in medical research because of their similarities to human beings. Results from research on non-human primates can often be applied to humans, and scientists have learned much about diseases, disorders, prevention and treatments for both humans and animals.

What is the greatest threat to nonhuman primates? ›

The IUCN indicates that the main threats to primate species are loss of habitat due to agriculture (76% of species), logging and wood harvesting (60%), and livestock farming and ranching (31%), as well as direct loss due to hunting and trapping (60%) (fig.

Why is it important to use non-human animals in research? ›

The use of whole animals is a key element of much scientific and medical research as it enables normal physiological processes to be studied within the environment of the living body, and helps identify interactions that influence disease processes.

Why is it important to know about nonhuman primates and ensure that they continue to survive? ›

Research with animals, including non-human primates, has enabled the development of treatments and cures for a host of devastating diseases and conditions in humans, and continues to revolutionize our understanding of health and disease.

What is non-human primate research? ›

Experiments on non-human primates (NHPs) have brought about important advances in biology and medicine. Primates often play a crucial role in the safety testing of new drugs and in research aimed at understanding how the brain works and how to prevent infectious diseases in humans.

Which disease in the non-human primate is routinely tested for in the laboratory setting? ›

Non-human primates are highly susceptible to human diseases, such as influenza, measles and tuberculosis. Personnel working with primates must be TB tested prior to working with non-human primates and re-tested annually.

What are the different types of non-human studies? ›

Experiments involving non-human primates (NHPs) include toxicity testing for medical and non-medical substances; studies of infectious disease, such as HIV and hepatitis; neurological studies; behavior and cognition; reproduction; genetics; and xenotransplantation.

What are non-human primate models? ›

Macaque monkeys, a genus of Old World monkeys that include rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata), and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), are the most commonly used group of primate species in this research field, although other Old World monkeys, such as olive baboons (Papio anubis) ...

Should human rights be extended to non human primates? ›

If we truly believe in values and principles like liberty and equality, we should and must extend them to at least some nonhuman animals, even if this means letting go of the desire to see a gorilla in a zoo or an elephant in a circus. Learn more about the connections between human rights and nonhuman rights here.

Are non human primates endangered? ›

All apes – with the exception of humans – are threatened. The gorillas and chimpanzees of Africa as well as the gibbons of South and Southeast Asia are listed as critically endangered or threatened with extinction on the Red List (IUCN 2016).

Do non human primates really represent others beliefs? ›

Over two decades of research have produced compelling evidence that non-human primates understand some psychological states in other individuals but are unable to represent others' beliefs.

Why is it important to protect primates? ›

Primate conservation is therefore crucially important to maintain intact ecosystems and the many services these ecosystems provide to people, including clean and stable water sup- plies, prevention from floods and landslide, pollin- ation, stable micro-climates, and buffering of global warming (Wich et al.

How can primate research be prevented? ›

Please tell NIH to close down its seven cruel NPRCs with these seven easy steps:
  1. Call NIH's director. ...
  2. Contact NIH's director on Facebook and Instagram. ...
  3. Contact NIH's director on Twitter. ...
  4. E-mail the agency. ...
  5. Share this video with your friends and family members, and post it on social media.

How do non human primates use tools to manipulate their environment? ›

Both bonobos and chimpanzees have been observed making "sponges" out of leaves and moss that suck up water and using these for grooming. Sumatran orangutans will take a live branch, remove twigs and leaves and sometimes the bark, before fraying or flattening the tip for use on ants or bees.

What makes humans different from non human primates? ›

Many scientists agree that what distinguishes humans from apes most is our ability to use language to form complex functioning in groups, but others believe it is our physical differences, cognition, or culture that sets us apart.

What are some of the ethical guidelines for research in psychology with nonhuman animals? ›

Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research
  • Respect for animals' dignity.
  • Responsibility for considering options (Replace)
  • The principle of proportionality: responsibility for considering and balancing suffering and benefit.
  • Responsibility for considering reducing the number of animals (Reduce)
Jul 8, 2019

Who should be contacted if you want to conduct research using a non human species of animal? ›

Research on nonhuman animals may not be conducted until the protocol has been reviewed and approved by an appropriate animal care committee; typically, an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), to ensure that the procedures are appropriate and abide by the principles for humane experimental techniques ...

What is the Nhmrc policy on the care and use of non human primates for scientific purposes? ›

Those involved with the use of non-human primates must first ensure that there is no other way of obtaining the necessary information. If it is absolutely necessary to use non-human primates, their use must be ethical and humane, comply with all relevant legislation and meet the highest possible standards.

What is one of the problems in observing primate behavior? ›

Is there any way to truly study primates without potentially affecting their behavior? Another issue is how we deal address anthropomorphism, which is the tendency to project human emotions or motivations on non-humans.

What is the importance of social relationships for nonhuman primates? ›

Complex social relationships among nonhuman primates appear to contribute to individual reproductive success. Experiments with and behavioral observations of natural populations suggest that sophisticated cognitive mechanisms may underlie primate social relationships.

What are 5 non primates? ›

However, animals such as pigs, octopuses, dolphins, crows, and elephants are considered intelligent non-primates.

Are non humans protected in research? ›

In the United States, laboratory research with nonhuman animals is strongly regulated by the federal government to ensure it is scientifically valid and that animals are treated humanely.

Is it ethical to conduct experiments on non human animals? ›

Against animal experiments:

Experimenting on animals is always unacceptable because: it causes suffering to animals. the benefits to human beings are not proven. any benefits to human beings that animal testing does provide could be produced in other ways.

Should we allow the use of non human animals for science experiments? ›

Yes. The use of animals in research is essential for enabling researchers to develop new drugs and treatments. The use of animals in the lab has dramatically improved scientists' understanding of human biology and health. Animal models help ensure the effectiveness and safety of new treatments.

Why are non human primate studies important for understanding the human past? ›

Non-human primates alert us to the many, often uncanny similarities between humans and other animals, and the behaviors that define human distinctiveness. Studies of monkeys and apes in their natural settings in particular help us to model the ecological and social circumstances under which novel human behaviors arose.

What is the critical role of nonhuman primates in medical research? ›

Research with monkeys is critical to increasing our knowledge of how the human brain works and its role in cognitive, motor, and mental illnesses such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and depression.

Why is it important to study primates and how can these studies be useful to man? ›

Studies of primates shed light on our own evolution and the behaviour of extinct species. Studies of primates help us understand human health. Our own species' complex interactions with primates are a fertile ground for investigation. We have an ethical responsibility to promote the optimal welfare of captive primates.

What are the challenges to doing research on non human primates? ›

Limitations of genetic research with nonhuman primates include cost and availability. However, the ability to manipulate both genetic and environmental factors in captive primate populations indicates the promise of genetic research with these important animal models for illuminating complex disease processes.

What is an example of non human primate culture? ›

The behavior of Forest Troop baboons appears to constitute an example of a social culture in a nonhuman species.

What is the use of nonhuman primates in research in North America? ›

Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques were the most common species housed at responding institutions and comprised the majority of newly acquired and imported NHP. The most common uses for NHP included pharmaceutical research and development and neuroscience, neurology, or neuromuscular disease research.

Which pathogen poses greatest risk to researcher handling non human primates? ›

Nonhuman primates are very susceptible to infection from mycobacteria tuberculosis (TB) and can contract it from humans or other animals. Primates from environments where human TB is prevalent are at greatest risk for having the disease.

What factors are causing the endangerment of many non human primates? ›

FACTORS THAT THREATEN PRIMATE POPULATIONS. The IUCN indicates that the main threats to primate species are loss of habitat due to agriculture (76% of species), logging and wood harvesting (60%), and livestock farming and ranching (31%), as well as direct loss due to hunting and trapping (60%) (fig.

How do we identify culture in non human primates? ›

For a behavior to be considered a cultural practice in nonhuman primates it must meet certain conditions: the behavior must be practiced by multiple members of the community, it must vary between societies, and the potential for that same behavior must exist in other societies.

Do non human animals have rights? ›

As with human rights, nonhuman rights are based on fundamental values and principles of justice such as liberty, autonomy, equality, and fairness. All of human history shows that the only way to truly protect human beings' fundamental interests is to recognize their rights. It's no different for nonhuman animals.

Do you have to have a license to own a monkey in the US? ›

While there is no federal regulation on primate ownership, each state really does it's own thing. You have states like Arizona that don't regulate monkey ownership at all and others, like West Virginia, that ban very specific kinds on monkeys.

What states allow primates as pets? ›

Currently, Washington state, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, Alabama, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina have no restrictions on keeping monkeys as pets.

What states can you not own a monkey in? ›

It is illegal to own a monkey in 19 states, including in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming.

What are some examples of non-human primates? ›

Non-human primates are a group of mammals composed of simians – monkeys and apes – and prosimians, such as lemurs. Monkeys are further divided into two subgroups: Old World monkeys, which are native of Africa and Asia, and New World monkeys, which originate from Central and South America.

What is the legal status of non-human animals? ›

The legal system does not consider nonhuman animals as legal persons but as property or as sentient beings regulated by the rules of property.

What are non-human animal rights? ›

Animal rights advocates believe that non-human animals should be free to live as they wish, without being used, exploited, or otherwise interfered with by humans.


1. Animal testing on non-human primates | Wikipedia audio article
(wikipedia tts)
2. Why do we have hair in such random places? - Nina G. Jablonski
3. Mark Prescott - Social housing of non human primates can it become the norm internationally
4. How to Make a Questionnaire for Research
5. Proof of evolution that you can find on your body
6. Sustainable Coexistence of Human and Nonhuman Primates in the 21st Century - Dr. Erin P. Riley
(Association of Indian Primatologists)


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Introduction: My name is Dan Stracke, I am a homely, gleaming, glamorous, inquisitive, homely, gorgeous, light person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.