Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (2023)

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (1)Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (2)

Photo courtesy of Indi Samarajiva (left) and Mecklenburg County (right)

By the end of this chapter you will be able to...

  1. Explain trends in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy.
  2. List the tasks of midlife development.
  3. Summarize the physical changes and health problems that occur in midlife.
  4. Describe the physical changes that occur during menopause and differences in cultural responses to menopause.
  5. Compare menopause and andropause.
  6. Explain the relationship between menopause and sexual expression.
  7. Discuss the impact of diet and exercise on midlife health.
  8. Describe midlife cognitive development, including differences in crystallized and fluid intelligence.
  9. Compare the expert and the novice.
  10. Evaluate the concept of midlife crisis.
  11. Define the maintenance of dependent persons and the impact of care.
  12. Describe Erikson's generativity versus stagnation phase.
  13. Compare intrinsic and utilitarian marriages.
  14. Classify the types of marriage according to the Cuber and Harroff model.
  15. Discuss marital communication.
  16. Describe the seasons of divorce.
  17. Discuss issues related to remarriage, including remarriage and cohabitation.
  18. Describe the personality changes of midlife.
  19. Describe the style of the grandparents.
  20. Discuss issues related to work in midlife.

The objectives are given in the reading sections below.

middle age(Ob 1)

Middle (or median) adulthood refers to the period of life between young adulthood and old age. This is a relatively new stage of life. One hundred years ago, life expectancy in the United States was about 47 years. This period lasts from 20 to 40 years, depending on how these phases, ages, and tasks are culturally defined. The most common age setting is 40 to 65 years, but there can be up to 10 years on either side of these numbers. For the purposes of this text and this chapter, we define median age as 40 to 65 years. Research on this stage of life is relatively new, and many aspects of midlife are still being explored. This is possibly the least studied period of life.

Middle age as a central and decisive section in the CV. It lands at a critical time and examines the changes that are occurring physically, cognitively, and socially. Midlife has a unique advantage over the life course in that gains and losses are contrasted with aspects of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes that occur. We will identify the social benefits and complexities in mid-adulthood, as well as aspects of impaired cognitive and physical functioning. And this is a diverse group. Within this stage of development we can see significant differences in individuals. There is much to learn about this group.

development tasks(Ob 2)

Lachman (2004) brinda una descripción general completa de los desafíos que enfrentan los adultos de mediana edad. Éstos incluyen:

  1. Losing parents and experiencing the pain that comes with it.
  2. Introduce children to their own lives.
  3. Adjusting to home life without children (often referred to as empty nesting).
  4. Dealing with adult children returning home (known as boomerang children in the United States).
  5. become grandparents.
  6. Preparation for the end of adulthood.
  7. Act as caregivers for elderly parents or spouses.

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Photo courtesy of Pixabay

We will examine these responsibilities and this stage of life later in this chapter.

Physical development in middle age.(Ob 3)

There are few physical-biological changes in midlife other than impaired vision, more joint pain, and weight gain (Lachman, 2004).

Fur: When asked to imagine someone in mid-adulthood, we often imagine someone with wrinkles starting to appear and hair that is graying or thinning. What explains these physical changes? Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin, which is produced by hair follicles (Martin, 2014). As hair follicles age, they produce less melanin, which causes hair to turn gray. The hair color usually begins to lighten at the temples, but eventually all the hair turns white. For many, aging begins at age 30, but it is largely determined by your genes. Gray hair occurs earlier in whites and later in Asians. Genes also determine how much hair you have left on your head. Almost everyone experiences hair loss as they age, and the rate of hair growth slows with age. Many hair follicles stop producing new hair and the hair shafts become smaller. Men begin to show signs of baldness in their 30s and some are nearly bald by their 60s. Male pattern baldness is related to testosterone and is identified by a receding hairline followed by hair loss on the upper part of the head. head. Women can also develop female pattern baldness when their hair becomes less dense and the scalp becomes visible (Martin, 2014). However, sudden hair loss can be a symptom of a health problem.

First:The skin continues to dry out and tends to wrinkle, especially in the sensitive area of ​​the face. Wrinkles or wrinkles in the skin are a normal part of aging. As we age, our skin dries out and loses the underlying layer of fat, making our faces less smooth. Loss of muscle tone and thinning of the skin can make the face look saggy or saggy. While wrinkles are a natural part of aging and genetics play a role, frequent sun exposure and smoking cause wrinkles to appear sooner. Dark spots and blemishes on the skin also appear with age and are due to sun exposure (Moskowitz, 2014). The blood vessels become more apparent as the skin becomes drier and thinner.

Thrust: The lungs have two functions: to supply oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide. The weakening of the bones with age can change the shape of the chest and cause a loss of lung expansion. Age-related muscle changes, such as a weakening of the diaphragm, can also reduce lung capacity. Both changes reduce oxygen levels in the blood and increase carbon dioxide levels. It can result in shortness of breath and fatigue (NIH, 2014b). By middle age, these changes and their impact are usually minimal, especially in physically active people who don't smoke. However, in patients with chronic bronchitis, or those with frequent pneumonia, asthma or other lung diseases, or smokers, the effects of these normal changes of aging may be more pronounced.

Vision: Vision deteriorates with age. With age, the lens of the eye enlarges, but the eye loses some of the flexibility it needs to adapt to visual stimuli. As a result, middle-aged adults often have difficulty seeing up close. A typical age-related change in the eye is presbyopia, which means "old vision" in Latin. It refers to a loss of elasticity in the lens of the eye, making it difficult for the eye to focus on objects that are closer to the person. When we look at something far away, the crystalline lens flattens; When looking at close objects, the small muscle fibers around the lens allow the eye to flex the lens. As we age, these muscles weaken and can no longer accommodate the lens to focus light. Anyone over the age of 35 is at risk of developing presbyopia.

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (4)

Image courtesy of Pixabay

According to the National Eye Institute (NEI) (2016), signs that someone may have presbyopia include:

  • Difficulty reading small print
  • Having to hold reading material beyond arm's reach
  • Problems detecting nearby objects
  • headache
  • eyestrain

Another common eye problem that occurs with age is floaters, tiny dots or "cobwebs" that float in the field of vision. They are most noticeable when looking at the sky or a blank backlit screen on a sunny day. Floaters occur when the vitreous humor, a gel-like substance in the eye, slowly shrinks. As it shrinks it becomes somewhat fibrous and these strings can cast small shadows on the retina. In most cases, floaters are harmless, more of a nuisance than a sign of eye problems. However, floaters that come on suddenly or darken and blur vision may be a sign of more serious eye problems, such as: B. retinal tears, infection, or inflammation. People who are highly nearsighted (nearsighted), have diabetes, or have had cataract surgery are also more likely to have floaters (NEI, 2009).

In middle age, adults may notice a decrease in scotopic sensitivity, the ability to see in dim light. At age 60, the retina receives only a third of the amount of light it received at age 20, making it difficult to work in low light (Jackson and Owsley, 2000). Night vision is also affected as the pupil loses some of its ability to open and close to accommodate drastic changes in light. The eyes are more sensitive to glare from headlights and street lamps, making it difficult to see people, cars, and movement outside of our direct line of sight (NIH, 2016c).

Escuchar:Before the age of 40, about 5.5% of adults report hearing problems. Among those aged 40 to 69 it is 19% (American Psychological Association, 2016). Hearing loss occurs in about 14% of middle-aged adults (Gratton & Vasquez in Berk, 2007) as a result of exposure to high noise levels. Men can have hearing loss at age 30 and women at age 50. High frequency sounds are the first to be affected by this hearing loss. This loss adds up after years of exposure to intense noise levels. Men work more often in noisy jobs. Hearing loss is also made worse by smoking, high blood pressure, and stroke. Most hearing loss can be prevented by protecting yourself from extremely noisy environments. (There is a new concern about hearing loss in early adulthood with the widespread use of headphones.)

Most of the changes that occur in midlife can be easily offset (for example, buying glasses, exercising, and eating mindfully). And most middle-aged adults are generally in good health. However, the proportion of adults with disabilities is increasing in middle age; while 7 percent of people in their 40s have a disability, the rate rises to 30 percent in their early 60s. This increase is greater among people of lower socioeconomic status (Bumpass & Aquilino, 1995).

Middle-aged adults need to exercise more, eat less, and watch their diet to maintain their former shape. However, due to decreased metabolism, weight gain may occur. The accumulation of abdominal fat, sometimes referred to as the extension of midlife, is one of the most common ailments of middle-aged adults. Men tend to store fat in the upper abdomen and back, while women tend to store fat in the waist and arms. Many adults are surprised by this weight gain because their diet hasn't changed. However, in middle age, metabolism decreases by approximately one third (Berger, 2005).

For middle-aged adults, it becomes important to take preventive measures to improve physical well-being. Here, too, lifestyle has a strong influence on the health status of middle-aged adults. Choosing not to smoke, controlling alcohol intake, eating right, reducing stress, and maintaining physical activity can improve overall health. Middle-aged adults who have a strong sense of mastery and control over their lives, who engage in challenging physical and mental activities, exercise with weights, control their diet, and use social resources are more likely to enjoy a plateau of good health. health during these years (Lachman, 2004).

health concerns

sarcopenia:Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength is known as sarcopenia (Morley, Baumgartner, Roubenoff, Mayer & Nair, 2001). Sarcopenia is considered an important factor in the frailty and functional decline that occurs in old age. A decrease in growth and anabolic hormones, particularly testosterone, and reduced physical activity have been implicated as causes of sarcopenia (Proctor, Balagopal & Nair, 1998). This decline in muscle mass can occur after the age of 40 and is a major contributor to decreased quality of life, increased health care costs, and premature death in older adults (Karakelides & Nair, 2005). In middle age, muscle performance gradually declines by five percent every ten years. While men and women typically experience a loss of 30 to 40 percent of their functional strength, people can counteract the loss of muscle mass in their later years with strength training. Sarcopenia has only been recognized as an independent disease entity since 2016 (ICD-10). In 2018, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assigned sarcopenia its own discreet medical code. Exercise is certainly important for increasing strength, aerobic capacity, muscle protein synthesis, and new nerve growth (Piasecki et al., 2018), but unfortunately it does not reverse all age-related changes. The muscle-to-fat ratio of men and women also changes over the course of adulthood, with fat accumulating in the abdominal area. Humans reach a maximum bone mass of around 35-40. Mobility may be a key concern, and some researchers are now identifying some conditions as osteosarcopenia, which describes the loss of muscle tissue (sarcopenia) and bone tissue (osteoporosis).

heart disease:According to the latest National Vital Statistics Reports (Xu, Murphy, Kochanek, & Bastian, 2016), heart disease remains the leading cause of death among Americans, accounting for 23.5% of deaths in 2013, the leading cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2019). Heart disease develops slowly over time and usually occurs in middle age (Hooker & Pressman, 2016). Heart conditions can include heart defects and abnormal heart rhythms, and narrowed, blocked, or hardened blood vessels, known as cardiovascular disease. Clogged blood vessels prevent the body and heart from getting enough blood.atherosclerosis, or a buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries, is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Plaque buildup thickens arterial walls and restricts blood flow to organs and tissues. Cardiovascular disease can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke (Mayo Clinic, 2014a).

Complications of heart disease include heart failure, when the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, and heart attack, when a clot blocks blood flow to the heart. This blockage can damage or destroy part of the heart muscle, and atherosclerosis is a factor in heart attacks. Treatment for heart disease includes medication, surgery, and lifestyle changes, such as exercise, a healthy diet, and not smoking.

Sudden cardiac arrest is the unexpected loss of heart function, breathing, and consciousness, often caused by an arrhythmia or abnormal heartbeat. The heartbeat may be too fast, too slow, or irregular. In a healthy heart, a fatal arrhythmia is unlikely to develop without an external factor, such as electric shock or illicit drugs. If not treated in time, sudden cardiac arrest can be fatal, leading to sudden cardiac death.

The symptoms of cardiovascular diseases (including heart disease) differ in men and women. Men are more likely to experience chest pain. Symptoms may include shooting [chest] pain, weakness, dizziness, confusion, and shortness of breath. In fact, chest pain, such as pressure, tightness, or fullness, is an important indicator that doctors look for when diagnosing a heart attack (Becker, 2005). However, women are more likely to experience shortness of breath, nausea, and extreme fatigue. The three most common early warning symptoms in women are extreme fatigue, trouble sleeping, and shortness of breath (even without exertion). Other symptoms may also include pain in the arms, legs, neck, jaw, throat, abdomen, or back (Mayo Clinic, 2014a). It is important that women and their loved ones are aware of these symptoms and seek immediate medical attention in an acute situation. The most common acute symptoms are shortness of breath, weakness, and fatigue. Also, prevention and early intervention are important. A diet low in trans and saturated fats, not smoking, exercising regularly, and reducing stress are good preventative measures.

hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a serious health condition that occurs when blood flows with more force than normal. One in three American adults (70 million people) have high blood pressure, and only half have it under control (Nwankwo, Yoon, Burt, & Gu, 2013). It can put pressure on the heart, increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, or damage the kidneys (CDC, 2014a). Uncontrolled high blood pressure in early and mid adulthood can also damage the white matter (axons) of the brain and is associated with cognitive problems later in life (Maillard et al., 2012). Normal blood pressure is below 120/80. The first number is the systolic pressure, which is the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart beats. The second number is the diastolic pressure, which is the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart is at rest. High blood pressure is sometimes called the silent killer because most people with high blood pressure have no symptoms.

High cholesterol:Cholesterol is a waxy fatty substance that is carried in the blood by lipoprotein molecules. It is produced by the body to make hormones and help digest fatty foods, and it is also found in many foods. Your body needs cholesterol, but too much can cause heart disease and stroke. Two important types of cholesterol are low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The third type of fat is called triglycerides. Your total cholesterol is based on all three types of lipids. LDL cholesterol makes up most of the cholesterol in the body, but it is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because at high levels it can build up in the arteries and lead to heart attacks and strokes. HDL cholesterol, often called "good" cholesterol, absorbs cholesterol and transports it back to the liver, where it is removed from the body. Higher HDL levels can reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Triglycerides are a type of fat in the blood that is used for energy. High triglyceride levels can also increase the risk of heart disease and stroke when combined with high LDL and low HDL levels. All adults over the age of 20 should have their cholesterol levels checked. In early adulthood, doctors may check every few years to make sure the numbers were normal and there are no other signs of heart disease. By mid-adulthood, this can become part of the annual checkup (CDC, 2015).

Krebs:After heart disease, cancer was the second leading cause of death among Americans in 2013, accounting for 22.5% of all deaths (Xu et al., 2016). According to the National Institutes of Health (2015), cancer is the name given to a series of related diseases in which cells in the body begin to continually divide and spread to surrounding tissues. These extra cells can divide and form growths called tumors, which are usually masses of tissue. Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can invade nearby tissues. Once removed, malignant tumors can grow back. Unlike malignant tumors, benign tumors do not invade nearby tissues. Benign tumors can sometimes be quite large and usually do not grow back once they are removed. Although benign tumors in the body are not cancerous, benign brain tumors can be fatal. Cancer cells can trick nearby normal cells into forming blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to tumors so they can grow. These blood vessels also remove waste from tumors. Cancer cells can also hide from the immune system, a network of specialized organs, tissues, and cells that protect the body from infection and other diseases. Ultimately, cancer cells can metastasize, meaning they can break away from where they first formed, known as the primary cancer, and travel through the lymphatic system or blood to attract new tumors elsewhere. of the body. This new metastatic tumor is of the same type as the primary tumor (National Institutes of Health, 2015).

Cancer can start in almost any part of the human body. While normal cells mature into very different cell types with specific functions, cancer cells do not divide and continue to divide endlessly. In addition, cancer cells can ignore signals that normally tell them to stop dividing or start a process known as programmed cell death, which the body uses to get rid of unneeded cells. As cancer cells grow, normal cells are killed off and the body can no longer function as it should. For example, in lung cancer, cancer cells form tumors that affect lung function and oxygen transport to the rest of the body. There are more than 100 types of cancer. The American Cancer Society compiles a list of the most common types of cancer in the United States. To qualify for the 2016 list, the estimated annual incidence had to be 40,000 cases or more. The most common cancer on the list is breast cancer. The second most common types of cancer are lung cancer and prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2016).

Diabetes (diabetes mellitus)It is a disease in which the body does not control the amount of glucose in the blood. A typical test for diabetes involves a fasting glucose test. This disease occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use it as it should (NIH, 2016a). Insulin is a type of hormone that helps blood sugar enter cells to provide energy. In adults, 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes are type 2 (American Diabetes Association, 2016). Type 2 diabetes often begins with insulin resistance, a disorder in which cells in muscle, liver, and fat tissue do not use insulin properly (CDC, 2014d). As the need for insulin increases, the cells of the pancreas gradually lose their ability to produce enough insulin. In some type 2 diabetics, the beta cells in the pancreas stop working and insulin injections are necessary. Some people with diabetes have insulin resistance with only minor impairment of insulin secretion by beta cells. Other diabetics experience only mild insulin resistance, with lack of insulin secretion being the main cause (CDC, 2014d). It is estimated that one in three adults have prediabetes and 9 out of 10 of them do not know it. According to the CDC (2014d), without intervention, 15% to 30% of people with prediabetes will develop diabetes within 5 years. In 2012, 29 million people (more than 9% of the population) were living with diabetes in the United States, mostly adults 20 years of age and older. The median age at diagnosis is 54 years (CDC, 2014d). In middle age, the number of people with diabetes increases dramatically; from 4.3 million living with diabetes before the age of 45 to more than 13 million between the ages of 45 and 64; a quadruple. Men are slightly more likely to have diabetes than women.

rheumatoid arthritis (RA)It is an inflammatory disease that causes pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of joint function (NIH, 2016b). The typical age of onset is between 30 and 60 years.rheumatoid arthritis(RA), with the peak onset in women around 40 years of age. RA occurs when the immune system attacks the membrane that lines the joints. RA is the second most common form of arthritis after osteoarthritis, the normal wear and tear on the joints. Unlike osteoarthritis, RA attacks the body symmetrically, so if one shoulder is affected, the other will be as well. Additionally, people with RA may experience fatigue and fever.

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (5)

Caption: cartilage injury in the AR. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Similarities to RA (NIH, 2016b):

(Video) The Growth of Knowledge: Crash Course Psychology #18

  • Tender, hot and swollen joints
  • Symmetrical pattern of affected joints
  • Joint inflammation that usually affects the joints of the hand and fingers closest to the hand
  • Joint inflammation that sometimes affects other joints, such as the neck, shoulders, elbows, hips, knees, ankles, and feet
  • Fatigue, occasional fever, loss of energy
  • Pain and stiffness for more than 30 minutes in the morning or after a long rest
  • Symptoms that last for many years.

Rheumatoid arthritis affects approximately 1.5 million people (about 0.6%) of Americans. It occurs in all races and ages, although the disease usually begins in middle age and is more common in older people. Like other forms of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis is much more common in women than in men. About two to three times as many women as men have the disease (NIH, 2016b). It affects women more than men by a factor of approximately 3 to 1. The lifetime risk of RA for women is 3.6% and for men 1.7% (Crowson et al., 2011 ).

Genes play a role in the development of RA. However, the individual genes alone confer a low risk of developing the disease because some people who have those specific genes never develop RA. Scientists believe that something has to happen to trigger the disease process.
People whose genetic makeup makes them susceptible to rheumatoid arthritis. For example, some scientists also believe that hormonal factors may play a role. In women who have RA, symptoms may improve during pregnancy and worsen after pregnancy. Women using orally
Birth control pills can increase the chance of getting RA. This suggests that hormones, or possibly deficiencies or changes in certain hormones, may increase the risk of developing RA in a genetically susceptible individual (NIH, 2016b).

Rheumatoid arthritis can affect virtually all areas of a person's life, interfering with the joys and responsibilities of work and family life. Fortunately, current treatment strategies allow most people with RA to lead active and productive lives. Medications and pain relievers can slow joint damage, and a balance of rest and exercise can also reduce RA symptoms (NIH, 2016b).

digestive problems

In the US, 60 million people experience heartburn at least once a month and 15 million every day.Asia, also known as acid indigestion or heartburn, is a common digestive problem in adults and is the result of stomach acid buildup in the esophagus. Prolonged contact with digestive juices damages the lining of the esophagus and causes discomfort. Heartburn, which is more common, could be due to gastroesophageal reflux disease, GERD. Normally, the lower esophageal sphincter prevents stomach acid from entering the esophagus. In GERD, this muscle relaxes too often, causing stomach acid to flow up into the esophagus. Persistent heartburn problems can lead to more serious complications, including esophageal cancer, one of the deadliest cancers in the United States. for gastroenterology, 2016a).

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Image courtesy of the NIH National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Gallstones occur in approximately 20% of women and 10% of men older than 55 years (American College of Gastroenterology, 2016b).gallstonesThey are hard particles, including fatty substances, bile pigments, and calcium deposits that can form in the gallbladder. They range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball and usually take years to develop, but in some people they develop over the course of a few months. About 75% of gallstones do not cause symptoms, but those that do can cause sporadic pain in the upper abdomen if the stones block the bile or pancreatic ducts. If stones become lodged in the ducts, surgery or other medical intervention may be needed, as they can be life-threatening if left untreated (American College of Gastroenterology, 2016b). Risk factors for gallstones include a family history of gallstones, eating a diet high in calories and refined carbohydrates (such as white bread and rice), diabetes, metabolic syndrome, Crohn's disease, and obesity, which increases the level of cholesterol in bile and therefore the risk of developing gallstones (NIH, 2013).

you give menopause(it's 4, it's 5, it's 6)

A biologically induced change that occurs during midlife is the climacteric. EITHERClimacterium, or the midlife transition, when fertility declines, is biological but influenced by the environment. In middle age, males may experience a reduction in their reproductive capacity. However, women lose the ability to reproduce when they reach menopause.

Menopause in women: perimenopauserefers to a transition period when a woman's ovaries stop producing eggs and production of estrogen and progesterone decreases.Menopauseis defined as 12 months without menstruation. After menopause, a woman's menstrual periods stop (US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, 2007).

The changes usually occur between the mid-40s and mid-50s. For many women, symptoms begin in their 40s. These symptoms appear during perimenopause, which can occur 2 to 8 years before menopause (Huang, 2007). A woman may notice that her periods are more or less frequent than before. These menstrual changes can last from 1 to 3 years. After one year without menstruation, a woman is considered to be in menopause and is no longer capable of reproduction. (Remember, some women may experience another period even after a year without a period.) The average age for women to get their last period is between 50 and 52, but ages vary. The loss of estrogen also affects vaginal lubrication, which decreases and becomes more watery. The vaginal wall also becomes thinner and less elastic. Hormonal changes can contribute to difficulty falling asleep. Additionally, falling estrogen levels can make a woman more vulnerable to environmental and stressors that disrupt sleep. A hot flash is a rush of adrenaline that can wake the brain from sleep. It often produces perspiration and a change in temperature that can affect sleep and well-being. Unfortunately, it can take a while for the adrenaline to wear off and go back to sleep (National Sleep Foundation, 2016). The decrease in estrogen can cause osteoporosis, which leads to a decrease in bone mass. Depression, irritability, and weight gain are often associated with menopause but are not menopause (Avis, Stellato, & Crawford, 2001; Rossi, 2004). Weight gain can occur due to an increase in intra-abdominal fat followed by a loss of lean body mass after menopause (Morita et al., 2006). Consequently, women may need to make lifestyle changes to counteract weight gain. Most American women go through menopause without problems (Carroll, 2016). In general, menopause is not universally considered distressing (Lachman, 2004).

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (7)

Image courtesy of Wikimedia

Hormone replacement therapy:Concerns about the effects of hormone replacement have changed the frequency with which hormone replacement therapy and estrogen are prescribed to menopausal women. Estrogen replacement therapy used to be commonly used to treat the symptoms of menopause. However, more recently, hormone replacement therapy has been linked to breast cancer, stroke, and the development of blood clots (NIH, 2007). Most women do not have symptoms severe enough to warrant estrogen or hormone replacement therapy. If they do, they can be treated with lower doses of estrogen and monitored by more frequent chest and pelvic exams. There are also other ways to reduce symptoms. These include avoiding caffeine and alcohol, consuming soy, staying sexually active, practicing relaxation techniques, and using water-based lubricants during sex.

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Photo courtesy of Pixabay
cultural influencesThey also appear to play a role in how menopause is experienced. Many international students enrolled in my classes expressed their disbelief when we talked about menopause. For example, after listing the symptoms of menopause, a Kenyan or Nigerian woman might respond, "We don't have that in my country, or if we do, it's not a big deal," to which some American students respond, "I want to go there! In fact, there are cultural differences in the experience of menopausal symptoms Hot flashes are experienced by 75 percent of women in Western cultures, but less than 20 percent of women in Japan (Obermeyer in Berk , 2007).

Women in the United States respond differently to menopause based on what they expect of themselves and their lives. White, career-minded, African-American, and Mexican-American women generally tend to view menopause as a liberating experience. However, there is a general tendency to mistakenly attribute the frustrations and irritations expressed by menopausal women to menopause, and therefore not to take their concerns seriously. Fortunately, many doctors in the United States today normalize menopause rather than pathologize it.

Concerns about the effects of hormone replacement have changed the frequency with which hormone replacement therapy and estrogen are prescribed to menopausal women. Estrogen replacement therapy used to be commonly used to treat the symptoms of menopause. However, more recently, hormone replacement therapy has been associated with breast cancer, stroke, and blood clot formation (NLM/NIH, 2007). Most women do not have symptoms severe enough to warrant estrogen or hormone replacement therapy. But if they do, they can be treated with lower doses of estrogen and monitored with more frequent chest and pelvic exams. There are also other ways to reduce symptoms. These include avoiding caffeine and alcohol, consuming soy, staying sexually active, practicing relaxation techniques, and using water-based lubricants during sex.

andropause for men:Do men have menopause? They do not lose their ability to reproduce as they age, although they do tend to produce less testosterone and less sperm. Andropause is related to the decline in testosterone levels that occurs with age. However, males are capable of reproducing throughout their lives. It is natural for sexual desire to decrease slightly as men age, but a lack of sexual desire can be the result of extremely low testosterone levels. About 5 million men have low testosterone levels, which causes symptoms such as loss of sexual interest, loss of body hair, difficulty getting or maintaining an erection, loss of muscle mass, and enlarged breasts. Low testosterone levels can be caused by glandular diseases such as testicular cancer. Testosterone levels can be tested, and if they are low, men can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. This can increase sex drive, muscle mass, and beard growth. However, long-term HRT in men may increase the risk of prostate cancer (The Patient Education Institute, 2005).

Although men can have children until middle age, erectile dysfunction (ED) is becoming more common.erectile dysfunctionrefers to the inability to achieve an erection or an inconsistent ability to achieve an erection (Swierzewski, 2015). Intermittent erectile dysfunction affects up to 50% of men between the ages of 40 and 70. About 30 million men in the United States suffer from chronic erectile dysfunction, and the percentages increase with age. About 4% of men in their 40s, 17% of men in their 60s, and 47% of men over the age of 75 have chronic erectile dysfunction. The causes of erectile dysfunction are most often due to conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, alcoholism, and atherosclerosis (plaque deposit in the arteries). In general, medical conditions account for 70% of chronic erectile dysfunction, while psychological factors such as stress, depression, and anxiety account for 10-20% of all cases. Many of these causes are treatable, and erectile dysfunction is not an inevitable consequence of aging. Middle-aged men may also have an enlarged prostate, which can affect urination, and low testosterone, which declines in adulthood, but especially after age 50.

menopause and sexuality(Ob 7)

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Photo courtesy of mollybee
Sexuality is an important part of life for people of all ages. Middle-aged adults tend to have very similar sex lives to younger adults. And many women feel freer and less sexually inhibited as they get older. However, a woman may notice less vaginal lubrication during arousal and men may experience changes in their erections from time to time. This is especially true for men over the age of 65. As discussed in the previous paragraph, men with ongoing problems are more likely to have medical conditions (such as diabetes or heart disease) that affect sexual function (National Institute on Aging, 2005).

Results from the National Project on Social Life, Health, and Aging showed that 72% of men and 45.5% of women ages 52 to 72 reported being sexually active (Karraker, DeLamater, & Schwarz, 2011). Couples continue to enjoy physical intimacy and may be more involved in foreplay, oral sex, and other forms of sexual expression instead of focusing so much on intercourse. However, the risk of pregnancy remains until the woman has not menstruated for at least 12 months, and couples must continue to use contraception. People are still at risk for sexually transmitted infections, such as genital herpes, chlamydia, and genital warts. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014e), 16.7% of new HIV diagnoses in the country in 2014 (7,391 of 44,071) were in people 50 years of age or older. This was an increase from 15.4% on 2005. Practicing safe sex is important at any age, but unfortunately adults over 40 use condoms the least (Center for Sexual Health Promotion, 2010). This low rate of condom use suggests the need for increased efforts to educate older people about the risks and prevention of STIs. Hopefully, when couples understand how aging affects sexual expression, they will be less likely to misinterpret these changes as a lack of sexual interest or displeasure in their partner and will be able to continue to have satisfying and safe sexual relationships.


According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (Kasper, 2015), adults need at least 7 hours of sleep per night to avoid the health risks associated with chronic sleep deprivation. Less than 6 hours and more than 10 hours are also not recommended for middle-aged people (National Sleep Foundation, 2015). Not surprisingly, many Americans don't get the recommended 7 to 9 hours of sleep. In 2013, only 59% of American adults met this standard, compared to 84% in 1942 (Jones, 2013). That means 41% of Americans get less than the recommended amount of sleep at night. Other findings included that in 1993, 67% of Americans felt they were getting enough sleep, but in 2013 only 56% felt they were getting as much sleep as they needed. According to a 2016 analysis by the National Center for Health Statistics (CDC, 2016), having children decreases a person's amount of sleep; However, having a partner can improve sleep duration for both men and women. Additionally, in 2013, 43% of Americans believed that getting more sleep would make them feel better. Sleep problems: According to the Sleep in America survey (National Sleep Foundation, 2015), 9% of Americans report having been diagnosed with a sleep disorder, with 71% suffering from sleep apnea and 24% suffering from insomnia. Pain is also a contributing factor to the gap between the amount of sleep Americans say they need and the amount they get. There is an average of 42 minutes of sleep guilt for those with chronic pain and 14 minutes for those with acute pain in the last week. Stress and general poor health are also key components of reduced sleep duration and poorer sleep quality. Middle-aged individuals with lower life satisfaction experienced a greater delay in falling asleep than those with higher life satisfaction. Delaying sleep can be the result of midlife worry and anxiety, and improvements in these areas should improve sleep. Finally, menopause can affect the duration and quality of a woman's sleep (National Sleep Foundation, 2016).

Negative consequences of lack of sleep: There are many consequences of lack of sleep and these include physical, cognitive and emotional changes. Sleep deprivation suppresses immune responses that fight infection and can lead to obesity, memory impairment, and high blood pressure (Ferrie et al., 2007; Kushida, 2005). Lack of sleep is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, breast cancer, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes (Pattison, 2015). Lack of sleep can increase stress because cortisol (the stress hormone) remains elevated, keeping the body in a state of alertness and hyperarousal, which increases blood pressure. Sleep is also related to longevity. dew and others. (2003) found that older people with better sleep patterns also lived longer. During deep sleep, a growth hormone is released that stimulates protein synthesis, breaks down fat that provides energy, and stimulates cell division. Consequently, a decrease in deep sleep contributes to decreased growth hormone release and the subsequent physical decline seen with aging (Pattison, 2015). Sleep disorders can also affect glucose function in mid-adulthood. Non-shift-working Caucasian, African-American, and Chinese women ages 48 to 58 who were not taking insulin-related medications participated in the National Study of Women's Health (SWAN) sleep study and were followed for a few 5 years later (Taylor et al. al., 2016). Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance were measured at two time points. The results showed that irregular sleep schedules, including widely varied bedtimes and staying up much later than normal, are associated with insulin resistance in middle-aged women, which is a key predictor of metabolic health. , including the risk of diabetes. The increased risk of diabetes in middle-aged women and irregular sleep patterns could be an important reason why circadian rhythm disruption may affect glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis.

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To emphasize

We all know that stress plays an important role in our mental and physical health, but what exactly is stress? The termto emphasizeIt is defined as a pattern of physical and psychological responses in an organism to the perception of a threatening event that disrupts its homeostasis and overloads its ability to cope with the event (Hooker & Pressman, 2016). Stress originally comes from mechanics, where it is used to describe materials under pressure. The word was first used psychologically by the researcher Hans Selye. Selye (1946) coined the term stressor to refer to a stimulus that had that effect on the body (ie, caused stress). He developed a stress response model called the General Adjustment Syndrome, which is a three-phase stress model that includes a physiological resource mobilization phase, a coping phase, and a depletion phase (resources d).

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (11)

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Psychologists have studied stress in many ways, and it's not just the main stressor in life (eg, death in the family, natural disaster) that increases the likelihood of getting sick. Stress can result from negative events, chronically difficult situations, a biological fight-or-flight response, and as clinical conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Even small everyday annoyances, like being stuck in traffic or arguing with a friend, can raise blood pressure, disrupt stress hormones, and even suppress immune system function (DeLongis, Folkman, & Lazarus, 1988; Twisk, Snel, Kemper and van Machelen, 1999). Stress remains one of the most important and well-studied psychological correlates of disease, as excessive stress causes potentially damaging wear and tear on the body and can affect virtually all disease processes.

Dispositions and stress:Negative dispositions and personality traits have been strongly associated with a variety of health risks. One of the first negative associations between character traits and health was discovered by two cardiologists in the 1950s. They made the interesting discovery that there were common behavioral and psychological patterns in their heart patients that were not present in other patient samples. . This pattern included being competitive, impatient, hostile, and urgent. These behaviors were associated with twice the risk of heart disease than those who did not engage in these behaviors (Friedman & Rosenman, 1959). Since the 1950s, researchers have found that it is the hostile and competitive components of personality that are particularly detrimental to heart health (Irribarren et al., 2000; Matthews, Glass, Rosenman, & Bortner, 1977; Miller , Smith, Turner, Guijarro, & Hallet, 1996). Hostile people are easily angered, and this angry excitement can damage the arteries of the heart. Also, due to their negative personality style, hostile people often lack a supportive social network to protect their health.

Social relationships and stress:Research has shown that the impact of social isolation on our risk of illness and death is similar to that associated with regular smoking (Holt-Lunstad, Smith, & Layton, 2010; House, Landis, & Umberson, 1988). In fact, the importance of social relationships to our health is so important that some scientists believe that our bodies have developed a physiological system that encourages us to pursue our relationships, especially during times of stress (Taylor et al., 2000). Social integration is the concept used to describe the number of social roles you have (Cohen & Willis, 1985). For example, it could be a daughter, a member of the basketball team, a Humane Society volunteer, a staff member, and a student. Maintaining these diverse roles can improve your health by encouraging those around you to maintain a healthy lifestyle. People in your social network can also provide you with social support (for example, when you are under stress). This support can include emotional help (like a hug when you need it), concrete help (like borrowing money), or advice. By helping to improve health behaviors and reduce stress, social relationships can have a powerful and protective effect on health and, in some cases, even help people with serious illnesses live longer (Spiegel, Kraemer, Bloom and Gottheil, 1989).

Social support is important to buffer stress, but nurturing and nurturing a spouse can increase stress. Having a child, spouse, parent, or other family member with a disability is part of life for some middle-aged adults. Caring for a young child or adult with special needs was associated with poorer general health and more physical symptoms in both fathers and mothers (Seltzer, Floyd, Song, Greenberg, & Hong, 2011). Stress is felt when a loving spouse feels tension (Beach, Schulz, Yee, & Jackson, 2000; Krause, Herzog, & Baker, 1992; Schulz et al., 1997). Despite similar care situations, women experience a higher care burden than men (Gibbons et al., 2014; Torti, Gwyther, Reed, Friedman, & Schulman, 2004; Yeager, Hyer, Hobbs, & Coyne, 2010). Women no longer resort to external support because they feel responsible for assuming care roles (Torti et al., 2004) and are concerned about the opinions of others when they accept help (Arai, Sugiura, Miura, Washio & Kudo, 2000). . In terms of caregiving, men with disabilities are more aggressive than women, particularly men with dementia, who show more physical and sexual aggression towards their caregivers (Eastley & Wilcock, 1997; Zuidema, de Jonghe, Verhey, and Koopmanns, 2009).

Exercise, diet, coping and health(Ob 8, Ob 9)

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (12)

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Lifestyle has a strong impact on the health status of middle-aged adults. Smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, stress, lack of exercise and chronic diseases such as diabetes or arthritis affect overall health. For middle-aged adults, it becomes important to take preventive measures to improve physical well-being. Middle-aged adults who have a strong sense of mastery and control over their lives, who engage in challenging physical and mental activities, exercise with weights, control their diet, and use social resources are more likely to enjoy a plateau of good health. health in those years (Lachman, 2004). The next section looks at positive ways to stay healthy in midlife.

The training effect:Exercise is a powerful way to combat the changes we associate with aging. Exercise plays an important role in counteracting normal aging. Exercise strengthens muscles, increases metabolism, helps control blood sugar, increases bone density, and reduces stress. Unfortunately, less than half of middle-aged adults, and only about 20%, exercise frequently and intensely enough to experience health benefits. Exercise increases serotonin levels (Young, 2007). Physical activity is also associated with reduced depression and anxiety (De Moor et al., 2006). For example, people who exercise regularly are less likely to be depressed or anxious than those who do not (De Moor et al., 2006). The health benefits that walking and other physical activities have on the nervous system are becoming increasingly apparent to those concerned with aging. Adamie et al. (2018) found strong associations between weight bearing and neuron output. Many studies indicate that voluntary physical activity prolongs and improves quality of life. Such studies show that even moderate physical activity can lead to big gains. Exercise tends to reduce and prevent behaviors such as smoking, alcohol, and gambling, and regulates hunger and satiety drives (Vatansever-Ozen et al., 2011; Tiryaki-Sonmez et al., 2015).

The best exercise programs are those that are practiced regularly, regardless of the activity. But a comprehensive, easy-to-follow program includes walking and strength training. A safe and comfortable place to walk can make the difference between someone walking regularly or not. Weight lifting and stretching exercises at home can also be part of an effective program. Exercise is especially helpful in reducing midlife stress. Walking, jogging, bicycling, or swimming can relieve tension caused by stressors. And learning relaxation techniques can have healthy benefits. Exercise can be seen as health care; Encouraging physical activity among the 78 million baby boomers may be one of the best ways to reduce health care costs and improve quality of life (Shure & Cahan, 1998).

Diet Concerns:Aging leads to a decrease in the number of calories a person needs. Many Americans respond to weight gain with diet. However, eating less usually does not mean eating well, and as a result, people often suffer from vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Doctors often recommend vitamin supplements to their middle-aged patients.

The new food pyramid:The ideal diet is low in fat and sugar, high in fiber, and low in sodium and cholesterol. In 2005, the Food Pyramid, a set of dietary guidelines established by the US government, was updated to include new nutrition information and provide people with guidelines based on age, gender, and activity level.

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (13)

(Video) How Many Lovers Will You Have In Your Lifetime?

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The ideal diet is also low in sodium (less than 2,300 mg per day). Sodium causes fluid retention, which in turn can make high blood pressure worse. The ideal diet is also low in cholesterol (less than 300 mg per day). The ideal diet is also high in fiber. Fiber is believed to reduce the risk of certain types of cancer and heart disease. Finally, an ideal diet is low in sugar. Sugar isn't just a problem for diabetics; it is also a problem for most people. Sugar satisfies the appetite but does not provide protein, vitamins or minerals. It provides empty calories. Starchy diets are also a problem, as starches are converted to sugar in the body. A 1- to 2-ounce serving of red wine (or grape juice) may also have beneficial effects. Red wine can increase “good cholesterol” or HDL (high-density lipoproteins) in the blood and provides important anti-aging antioxidants.

Dealing with stress:About 20% of Americans report experiencing stress, with those between the ages of 18 and 33 reporting the highest levels (American Psychological Association, 2012). Since the sources of our stress are often difficult to change (eg, personal finances, current job), various interventions have been developed to reduce aversive responses to compulsion, particularly those related to health. For example, relaxation activities and forms of meditation are techniques that allow people to reduce stress through breathing exercises, muscle relaxation, and imagery. Physiological arousal from stress can also be reduced through biofeedback, a technique in which an individual is shown bodily information not normally available to him or her (such as heart rate) and then taught strategies for responding. to that signal change. This type of intervention has shown promise in reducing the risk of heart disease and hypertension and other serious diseases (Moravec, 2008; Patel, Marmot, & Terry, 1981). Stress relief doesn't have to be complicated. For example, exercise is an excellent stress-reducing activity (Salmon, 2001) that has innumerable health benefits.

Copy strategies:Coping is often divided into two categories: problem-focused coping or emotion-focused coping (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Problem-focused coping is active engagement with the stressful event in order to resolve the problem at hand. Suppose you have an important exam next week. A problem-focused strategy might be to spend more time studying over the weekend to make sure you understand everything. Emotion-focused coping, on the other hand, regulates the emotions associated with stress. In the quiz example above, this could mean watching a funny movie to take your mind off the anxiety you're feeling. Emotion-oriented coping may reduce feelings of stress in the short term, but problem-oriented coping appears to have the greatest impact on psychological well-being (Billings & Moos, 1981; Herman-Stabl, Stemmler, & Petersen, 1995). However, when events are uncontrollable (such as the death of a loved one), emotion-focused coping, first aimed at controlling your feelings, may be the best strategy. Therefore, when evaluating plausible benefit, the consistency of the stressor with the coping strategy should always be taken into account.

Cognitive development in middle age(Ob 10)

brain function

It has been shown that the midlife brain not only retains many of the skills of young adults, but also acquires new ones. Some middle-aged people actually have improved cognitive function (Phillips, 2011). The brain continues to display plasticity and rewires itself into midlife based on experiences. Research has shown that older adults use their brains more than younger adults. In fact, older adults who perform better on tasks are more likely to show bilateralization than those who perform worse. Also, the amount of white matter in the brain responsible for forming connections between neurons increases until age 50 before declining.

Emotionally, the middle-aged brain is calmer, less neurotic, better able to manage emotions and better cope with social situations (Phillips, 2011). Older adults tend to focus more on positive information and less on negative information than younger adults. In fact, they also remember positive images better than younger people. In addition, the amygdala of the elderly reacts less to negative stimuli. Finally, middle-aged adults make better financial decisions, which seem to peak at age 53, and demonstrate better economic understanding. Although there is greater cognitive variability in middle-aged adults compared to younger and older adults, cognitively-enhanced middle-aged tend to be more physically, cognitively, and socially active.

information processing

As we age, working memory, or our ability to simultaneously store and use information, becomes less efficient (Craik & Bialystok, 2006). The ability to process information quickly also declines with age. This decrease in processing speed may explain age differences in many different cognitive tasks (Salthouse, 2004). Some researchers have argued that inhibitory function, or the ability to focus on specific information while attention is suppressed to less relevant information, declines with age and may explain age differences in cognitive task performance (Hasher & Zacks, 1988). ).

Consistent declines are seen with increasing age in cognitive tasks that require self-initiated processing and effort without the aid of supporting memory cues (Park, 2000). Older adults tend to perform worse than younger adults on memory tasks that involve recalling information. For example, older adults may have more difficulty remembering facts such as names or contextual details about where or when something happened (Craik, 2000). Fewer age differences are seen when memory cues are available, such as for recognition memory tasks, or when people have gained knowledge or experience to draw on. For example, older adults often do as well, if not better, than younger adults on vocabulary or vocabulary tests.

We can study changes in memory through longitudinal studies. The Seattle Longitudinal Study has tracked the cognitive abilities of adults since 1956. Every seven years, current participants are tested and new people are added. Some 6,000 people have participated so far, and 26 people from the original group are still participating in the study today. Recent results show that middle-aged adults perform better on four of six cognitive tasks than the same people did when they were young adults. Verbal memory, spatial skills, inductive reasoning (generalizing using specific examples), and vocabulary increase with age up to 70 years (Schaie, 2005; Willis & Shaie, 1999). However, in middle and late adulthood, numerical arithmetic and speed of perception decline.

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Figure legend: Longitudinal estimates of age changes within participants across different processing abilities (from 7-year longitudinal data). Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
We also see that tacit knowledge and other types of practical reasoning skills increase with age.tacit knowledgeit is pragmatic or practical and is learned through experience rather than explicitly taught. It can be described as "know how" or "professional instinct". It is called tacit because it cannot be encoded or written. It is not about academic knowledge, it is about the ability to apply skills and solve problems in a practical way. Tacit knowledge can be understood in the workplace and by workers such as carpenters, cooks, and hairdressers.

plasticity of intelligence

Previous research on cognition and aging has focused on comparing young and older adults and suggests that middle-aged adults fall somewhere in between. But some abilities may decline during middle age while others improve. The concept ofplasticityit means that intelligence can be shaped through experience. Intelligence is influenced by culture, social context, and personal choices, as well as heredity and age. In fact, there is new evidence that exercise or mental training may have lasting benefits (National Institutes of Health, 2007). Below we examine aspects of midlife intelligence.

crystallized and fluid intelligence

One distinction in specific intelligences observed in adulthood is betweenflowing intelligence, which refers to the ability to learn new ways to solve problems and perform activities quickly and abstractly, andcrystallized intelligence, which refers to the accumulated knowledge about the world that we acquire throughout our lives (Salthouse, 2004). These intelligences are different, and crystallized intelligence increases with age while fluid intelligence tends to decrease with age (Horn, Donaldson, & Engstrom, 1981; Salthouse, 2004). There is general agreement that after the age of 20, fluid intelligence steadily declines, but crystallized intelligence continues to increase.

flowing intelligencerelates to information processing skills (eg, reasoning, memory lists, spatial awareness, and reaction time). Crystallized intelligence includes skills based on experience and knowledge (eg, vocabulary tests, number problem solving, and reading comprehension).crystallized intelligenceit includes verbal memory, spatial skills, inductive reasoning (generalizing using specific examples), and vocabulary, all of which increase with age (Willis & Shaie, 1999). Research shows that older adults have higher levels of intelligence, which is reflected in semantic knowledge, vocabulary, and language. As a result, adults often outperform youth in historical, geographic, and even crossword puzzles where this information is useful (Salthouse, 2004). It is this superior knowledge, combined with a slower and more thorough processing style, coupled with a more nuanced understanding of how the world around them works, that gives older adults the advantage of 'wisdom' over the advantages of the fluid intelligence they prefer. Young people. (Baltes, Staudinger, & Lindenberger, 1999; Scheibe, Kunzmann, & Baltes, 2009).

The differences between crystallized and fluid intelligence help explain why older adults do not necessarily perform worse on tasks that also require experience or expertise (ie, crystallized intelligence), while having poorer memories overall. Specialization often comes with age, and research has pointed to areas in which aging specialists perform as well or better than younger people. For example, older typists have been found to compensate for age-related speed losses by looking further ahead in print (Salthouse, 1984). Compared to younger players, older chess experts can focus on a smaller set of possible moves, leading to greater cognitive efficiency (Charness, 1981). For example, a young chess player may think faster, but a more experienced chess player has more knowledge to draw on. Older drivers suffer in processing speed and storage capacity, but their overall performance seems to remain intact. According to Phillips (2011), researchers tested pilots aged 40 to 69 in flight simulators. The older pilots took longer to learn how to use the simulators, but they performed better than the younger pilots in avoiding collisions. Accumulated knowledge of everyday tasks, such as food prices, can help older adults make better decisions than younger adults (Tentori, Osheron, Hasher, & May, 2001).

Formales operativos Denken (Piaget revisited)

Remember formal operational thinking?formal operational thinkingit is about being able to think abstractly; However, this ability does not apply to all situations or topics. Formal operational thinking is influenced by experience and training. Some adults lead structured, orderly lives where they are not challenged to think abstractly about their world. Many adults receive no formal education and are not taught to think abstractly about situations they have never experienced. They are also not exposed to conceptual tools used to formally analyze what-if situations. Some things are easier for those who think abstractly than others. For example, English learners can think abstractly about literature, but they cannot think abstractly about physics or chemistry. Abstract thinking in a specific field requires a knowledge base that we may not have in all fields. Therefore, our ability to think abstractly depends to a large extent on our experiences. As mentioned above, adults tend to be more practical than teenagers. While they may think abstractly when approaching a situation and considering the possibilities, they tend to think more practically about what is likely to happen.

Caudalit is the state of mind of being fully present and fully engaged in a task (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). In a state of flow, the individual can block out external distractions and the mind is fully open to production. In addition, the person derives great pleasure or intellectual satisfaction from the activity and the achievement of a goal. Also, in a flow state, the individual does not care about external rewards. Csikszentmihalyi (1996) used his flow theory to study how some people display high levels of creativity, believing that a state of flow is an important factor in creativity (Kaufman & Gregoire, 2016). Other traits of creative people identified by Csikszentmihalyi (1996) are curiosity and the value of motivation in intellectual effort and the ability to lose one's sense of self and feel part of something bigger. Furthermore, he believed that the tormented creative person was a myth.
and that creative people were very satisfied with their lives. According to Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi (2002), people describe flow as the peak of joy. The more they experience it, the more satisfied they find their life. The qualities that allow flow are well developed in middle adulthood.

learning in old age(Ob 11)

Middle-aged adults in the United States often meet in classrooms. Whether enrolling in school to improve specific skills, reorganize and return to work, or to pursue previously neglected interests, these students tend to approach the classroom differently from younger college students (Knowles, Horton, & Swanson, 1998). ).

Cognitive mechanisms such as working memory and processing speed gradually decline with age. However, they can easily be compensated by using higher order cognitive skills, e.g. developing strategies to improve memory or summarizing and comparing ideas, rather than relying on memorization (Lachman, 2004). An 18 year old college student may focus more on memorization when studying for exams. They can recall information faster than an older student, but do not fully understand the meaning of that information. Older students may take a little longer to learn the material, but they forget it less quickly. Adult learners tend to look for relevance and meaning when learning information. Older adults find it harder to learn nonsense or unfamiliar material. They are more likely to ask, "What does that mean?" or "Why is this important?" when presenting information or rehearsing concepts or facts. Older adults are more task-oriented learners and want to organize their activities around problem solving. They see the trainer as a resource rather than an 'expert' and appreciate that their life experience is recognized and integrated into the material covered. This type of learning is easier to achieve when enough time is allowed to master the material. Keeping distractions to a minimum and studying rested and energetic enhances adult learning.

To meet the educational needs of those 50 and older, the American Association of Community Colleges (2016) developed the Plus 50 Initiative, which helps community colleges create or expand programs focused on job training and new careers for the 50+ population. 50 years. old. Since 2008, the program has awarded scholarships to 138 community colleges, benefiting more than 37,000 students. Participating colleges provide job training programs that prepare more than 50 adults for careers in areas such as early childhood educators, board certified nursing assistants, substance abuse counselors, adult basic education instructors, and substance abuse specialists. human Resources. These continuing education programs are particularly beneficial since 80% of those 50 and older say they retire later than their parents or continue to work after retirement, even in a new field.

Gaining Experience: The Beginner and the Expert(Ob 12)

We've talked about the benefits of specialization with age, and now we're going to talk about more specialized thinking. If we work intensely in one area, we can gain experience. Consider the learning abilities of an experienced student versus a new student or a new nurse versus an experienced nurse. One of the main differences is that the novice acts like a beginner, while the student or experienced nurse acts more like an expert. An expert has a different approach to learning and problem solving than a beginner or someone new to a field. While a beginner trusts more in formal procedures or guidelines, the expert trusts her intuition more and is more flexible in solving problems. Beginners tend to be more thorough and methodical than experts. An expert performs actions more automatically. For example, an experienced chef may prepare a difficult recipe but not describe exactly how he prepared it. The novice cook can strictly follow the recipe, paying attention to every word and measure. The expert also has better coping strategies than a beginner.

expertiserefers to specific skills and knowledge related to a specific topic or activity. In contrast, onenuevois someone who has limited experience with a specific task. Everyone develops some degree of 'selective' expertise in things that are personally important to them, such as baking bread, sewing, programming computers, or diagnosing disease. Expert thinking is often characterized as intuitive, automatic, strategic, and flexible.

  • Intuitive: Beginners follow specific steps and rules when solving problems, while experts can draw on a great deal of prior knowledge and experience. As a result, your actions seem more intuitive than formulated. An inexperienced cook might slavishly follow the recipe step by step, while a chef might flip through the recipes for ideas, then follow their own course of action.
  • Automatically: Complex thinking and acting become routine for experts. Their responses appear to be instinctive over time, and this is because experience allows us to process information more quickly and effectively (Crawford & Channon, 2002).
  • Strategic: Experts have more effective strategies than non-experts. For example, while experienced and inexperienced physicians will propose multiple hypotheses within minutes of meeting a patient, the conclusions of more qualified physicians are likely to be more accurate. In other words, they generate better odds than the newcomer. This is because they can ignore misleading symptoms and other distractions and focus on the most likely problem the patient is experiencing (Norman, 2005).
  • Flexible: Experts in all fields are more curious and creative; You like challenges and trying new ideas or approaches. The only way for experts to expand their knowledge is to take on more challenging than routine tasks.

Specialization takes time. It is a long process that arises from experience and practice (Ericsson, Feltovich & Prietula, 2006). Middle-aged adults, with their wealth of knowledge and experience, are likely to find that when faced with a problem, it is likely that they have faced something similar before. This allows them to ignore what is not important and focus on the important aspects of the problem. Specialization is one of the reasons many people tend to peak their careers in midlife. However, experience cannot fully compensate for all losses in general cognitive function with age. The superior performance of older adults compared to younger students appears to be task specific (Charness & Krampe, 2006). As we get older, we need to practice our skills more consciously in order to maintain them. Charness and Krampe (2006), in their review of the literature on aging and specialization, also find that the profitability of our efforts decreases with age. In other words, more practice in older adults does not produce the same results as comparable efforts in younger ages.

Psychosocial development in midlife.

What do you think is the happiest stage of life? And the saddest stages? Perhaps surprisingly, Blanchflower and Oswald (2008) found that reported levels of unhappiness and depressive symptoms peak in the early 1950s in American men and, interestingly, in the late 1930s in women. Minimum happiness is reported for both men and women in Western Europe in the mid-1940s, albeit with some significant national differences. Stone, Schneider, and Bradoch (2017) reported a precipitous drop in perceived stress in men in the United States after age 50. There is now a view that 'older people' (50+) are 'happier', despite some cognitive and functional changes. losses could be the younger people. This is often referred to as "the aging paradox." Positive attitudes toward continued cognitive and behavioral activity, interpersonal engagement, and their revitalizing effect on human neural plasticity may lead not only to longer life, but also to a longer period of continued complacency and community engagement.

Midlife crisis?(Ob 13)

Do you remember Levinson's theory from the last chapter? Levinson found that the men he interviewed sometimes struggled to reconcile the "dream" they had about the future with the reality they are experiencing now. “What am I really receiving and giving to my wife, children, friends, work, community, and myself?” a man might ask (Levinson, 1978, p. 192). Midlife transition tasks include 1) ending early adulthood; 2) re-evaluate and, if necessary, modify life in the present, and 3) reconcile "polarities" or contradictions in one's sense of self. Perhaps early adulthood ends when a person stops striving for adult status, but instead feels like a well-rounded adult in the eyes of others. This "permission" can lead to other options in life; Choices made for self-actualization instead of social acceptance. While people in their 20s may emphasize how old they are (to gain respect, to be seen as experienced), by the time they reach their 40s they tend to emphasize how young they are. (Few 40 year olds criticize themselves for being so young: "You're only 43? I'm 48!!")

This new perspective on time brings a new sense of urgency to life. The person is more focused on the present than on the future or the past. The person becomes impatient to be in the "waiting room of life" and puts off the things he always wanted to do. Now is the time. If it's ever going to happen, it's better now. An earlier focus on the future gives way to an emphasis on the present. Neugarten (1968) states that middle-aged people no longer think about how long they have lived. Instead, life is viewed in terms of years remaining. When a middle-aged adult isn't happy, there's a new sense of urgency to start making changes now.

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Changes can include ending a relationship or changing expectations of a partner. These modifications are simpler than changing the self (Levinson, 1978). Midlife is a transition period in which a person maintains previous images of himself while forming new images of himself in the future. Increased awareness of aging goes hand in hand with feelings of youth. And the damage that may have been done before in relationships is pursuing new dreams of contributing to the well-being of others. These polarities are the quieter fights that continue after the outward signs of a "crisis" have disappeared.

Although Levinson characterized midlife as a time of developmental crises, research suggests that most people in the United States today do not experience a midlife crisis, and that many women actually view midlife as a time of development crisis, a liberating and full time. Findings from a 10-year study by the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Midlife Development Success, based on telephone interviews with more than 3,000 midlife adults, suggest that the 40s to 60s they are marked by a sense of well-being. Only 23% of the participants reported having experienced a midlife crisis. The crisis tended to occur among people with a high level of education and was triggered by a major life event rather than fear of old age (Successful Midlife Development Research Network, accessed 2007). The Midlife Study Survey in the United States MIDUS also shows that a crisis is not a typical phenomenon of midlife. Certainly some have a midlife crisis, and 10-20% in the US report it (Wethington, 2000). Of those who say they've had a midlife crisis, about half say it's anxiety or stress related to aging. Incidentally, it is related to events such as divorce, job loss or health problems, which can occur at any age (Wethington, 2000). Those who experience midlife crises are often those who have had disorders at other times in their lives, and these individuals appear to be motivated by a neurotic personality rather than advancing age (Lachman, 2004). However, sales on products designed to make you feel younger and “over the hill” birthday parties with balloons and black sashes abound.

Target Perspective Acquisition

One of the reasons the men in Levinson's study worried about their lives was that things were not going as they expected. Shapiro (2006) offers an alternative to linear thinking about the future and career. Many use a map to plan their future. They have a sense of where they are and where they want to be, and they formulate strategies to get from point A to point B. While this seems perfectly logical, Shapiro suggests that following a map closes opportunities for the future and provides a pattern for why they all occur. the events. The actual data may be too short. So life is judged by how closely the actual events followed the map. If so, that's fine. Otherwise, a feeling of frustration and failure sets in. Shapiro suggests using a compass instead of a map as a guide. A compass shows a direction, but not a destination. Thus, a person has direction and areas of interest that guide decision making, but does not know the outcome. (Many of us don't know the outcome, even if we are following a map!) This approach opens up opportunities for a person who would normally arise by chance and saves them from stress or despair when a predefined goal is not reached. for a certain time. 🇧🇷 And most importantly, a life guided by a compass draws a person's attention to the process of the journey and helps them appreciate all their experiences along the way.

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (16)

What do you think? How many of his plans were made in advance? Could you be happy knowing that you don't know where you will be in 5 years?

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (17)
Caption: Shapiro suggests a compass analogy to focus on process as we age. Photo courtesy of Pixabay

Finding Gender Identity in Midlife: Erika's Story

The end of the 1940s brought a dramatic change in Erika's life. Erika is a transgender who began the transition from male to female around the age of 48. From the age of 8, Erika (then Richard) felt more feminine than masculine. An impromptu game of "dress up" with a girl who lived in the neighborhood gave Richard a sense of connection and "rightness" that he had never felt before. Over the years, putting on makeup and makeup has brought solace and relief, as has the fear of being found out. Richard married and pursued a career in the military and then as a geologist, both very masculine careers, but all the while he felt out of place in a masculine world.

(Video) Robert Waldinger: What makes a good life? Lessons from the longest study on happiness | TED

Over the years, the ailments led to depression and suicidal thoughts. "I felt like a sick and weird person." Not knowing what was going on and having no one to talk to was very difficult. Erika finally figured out what was going on after searching the internet. She first searched for "transvestite." "That's me?" she guessed. But these descriptions did not apply. Finally she found outgender Dysmorphia,characterized by a feeling of restlessness and disconnection between the sense of identity and biological sex. Finally, Richard worked up the courage to tell his wife. His response was, "You're killing my husband," to which he responded, "He would have died anyway." The couple separated after 24 years of marriage. However, after a few months, the couple got back together. "We were too good friends to part," but his wife didn't want to see him at first. "I'd dress in the garage or dress like a man from the waist up and then pull up behind a grocery store and finish changing before I got to my destination."

Erika looked up a psychologist in the phone book and began treatment in the Harry Benjamin pattern. This service requires that the person be identified as transgender by two psychologists and live fully as a member of the opposite sex for one year before beginning surgical and hormonal treatments. Erika's operation cost about $30,000. Hormone therapy and electrolysis cost much more.

Erika has lived under the same roof as his wife for 30 years together, but they no longer share a room. Erika now has full federal and state status as a woman. And his wife is a warm and welcoming roommate. "The day she yelled from her bedroom, 'Do you have pantyhose?' It was important." And seeing her lipstick on the rim of a wine glass created a sense of congruence for Erika. Erika could now be Erika.

erikson's theory(Ob 15)

According to Erikson, middle-aged adults face the crisisGenerativity vs Stagnation.After Erikson (1982)generativityIt includes reproductive capacity, productivity and creativity. This phase includes the generation of new beings, new products and new ideas, as well as self-generation, which deals with the development of identity. This includes looking at one's life and asking the question: "Am I doing something worthwhile? Will anyone know I've been here? What am I contributing to others?" Otherwise, a sense of stagnation can set in. This discomfort can motivate a person to redirect their energies towards more meaningful activities.It is important to make revisions here so that later in life the person can feel pride and accomplishment and be content with the decisions made.

Erikson believed that the generativity phase, in which a family and career are formed, is the longest of all phases. Erikson believed that middle-aged people "should care about the people, products, and ideas in which they have learned to care" (Erikson, 1982, p. 67). Erikson further argued that generativity occurs best after individual identity and intimacy issues are resolved (Peterson & Duncan, 2007). Middle-aged people are primarily concerned with leaving a positive legacy of themselves, and according to Erikson (1950), parenthood is the most important generative type. Erikson understood that work and family relationships can be conflicting due to the duties and responsibilities of each, but he believes that, overall, it was a positive developmental moment. In addition to being a father and a professional, Erikson also described the people involved in the community at this stage. A feeling of stagnation occurs when the person is not active in generative issues; However, stagnation can motivate a person to redirect their energies toward more meaningful activities.

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (18)

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Erikson believed that middle-aged people "should care about the people, products, and ideas in which they have learned to care" (Erikson, 1982, p. 67). Furthermore, Erikson believed that the strengths acquired in the previous six stages are essential to the generational task of cultivating strength in the next generation. Erikson further argued that generativity occurs best after individual identity and intimacy issues are resolved (Peterson & Duncan, 2007).

Research has shown that generative adults possess many positive traits, including good cultural awareness and a healthy adjustment to the world (Peterson & Duncan, 2007). Using the Big Five personality traits, generative women and men scored high on conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, and low on neuroticism (de St. Aubin & McAdams, 1995; Peterson, Smirles, & Wentworth, 1995). 1997). Additionally, women who scored high on generativity at age 52 ranked high on positive personality traits, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging at age 62 (Peterson & Duncan, 2007). Similarly, men with higher midlife generativity were associated with stronger global cognitive functioning (eg, memory, attention, computation), stronger executive functioning (eg, inhibition of responsiveness, abstract thinking, cognitive flexibility) and lower levels of depression related to late adulthood (Malone, Liu, Vaillant, Rentz, & Waldinger, 2016).

Erikson (1982) points out that individuals may withdraw at the end of this demanding phase because generativity is no longer expected in late adulthood. This frees the elderly from care and work tasks. However, feeling unneeded or challenged can lead to stagnation, and consequently one should not withdraw completely from generative tasks upon entering the final Eriksonian stage of late adulthood.

productivity at home(Ob 14)

Family relationships:Younger and older adults tend to experience more spousal-related stress than middle-aged adults. Middle-aged adults often haveoverload stressorsas B. High demands of children or financial concerns. Parents prepare to bring their children into their own lives during this time. Some parents who are uncomfortable with their children leaving home may create a crisis to prevent this or kick their children out too soon (Anderson & Sabatelli, 2007). When the children leave the house, that is calledEmpty nest. oEmpty nest,or post-parenthood (Dennerstein, Dudley & Guthrie, 2002), refers to the time when children grow up and leave home. For most parents, this occurs in middle age. This time is recognized as a “normative event” because parents are aware that their children are growing up and will eventually leave home (Mitchell & Lovegreen, 2009). The empty nest creates complex emotions for many parents, both positive and negative. Some theorists suggest that this is a moment of role loss for parents, others suggest that it is a resolution of role tension (Bouchard, 2013). Several studies in China suggest that empty nesters, particularly in more rural areas of China, report greater loneliness and depression than their counterparts with children still at home (Wu et al., 2010). Family support for the elderly through their children is a cherished Chinese tradition (Wong & Leung, 2012).

It can be typical of middle-aged people to carry a parent while continuing to support their adult children. EITHERsandwich generationrefers to adults who have at least one parent age 65 or older who is raising their own children or supporting adult children. According to a recent Pew Research survey, 47% of middle-aged adults belong to this sandwich generation (Parker & Patten, 2013). Additionally, 15% of middle-aged adults financially support their aging parents while raising or supporting their own children. According to the same survey, nearly half (48%) of midlife adults have supported their adult children in the past year, and 27% are the main source of support for their adult children.

adult childrenThey usually keep in frequent contact with their parents, if only for money and advice. Attitudes towards parents can become more tolerant and tolerant when they are viewed more objectively, as people with both good and bad qualities. And just like adults, children can continue to be criticized, teased, and abused by their parents. How long are we "adult children"? As long as our parents are alive, we remain in the role of son or daughter. (I had a 90-year-old neighbor tell me that her "kids" were visiting her this weekend. Her kids were 70, but they were still her kids!) But after the parents left, the adult is gone. over there. little boy; as a 40-year-old man declared after the death of his father: "I will never be a child again." And adult children who return after living independently outside the home are known asBoomerang kids,They can return home to live temporarily after a divorce, mental health problems, or if they lose their job. Parker (2012) found that 63% of 18-34 year olds know someone who has moved back in with their parents (Sandberg-Thoma, Snyder, & Jang, 2015).

In previous chapters you have read about the impact fathers have on their children's development, but remember that this relationship is two-way. The problems that children face, even when they grow up, affect the lives of their parents. Greenfield and Marks (2006), in their study of middle-aged parents and their adult children, found that parents whose children were dealing with personal problems contributed to higher negative affect, lower self-acceptance, poorer parent-child interactions, and more stress. of the reported work. family relationship. The more problems adult children had, the worse their parents' lives and emotional health became, and single parents fared worse.

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (19)

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Sometimes being a middle-aged kid means something.support of relatives;Organization of events and communication to maintain family ties. The caring parents are often middle-aged daughters (they are the people who say what food to bring to a gathering or arrange for a family reunion), but the legal guardians can also be middle-aged children. Leach and Braithwaite found that 86% of their respondents named a female caregiver for relatives in their family, and Brown and DeRycke found that mothers, maternal grandparents, and paternal grandparents were more likely to be related to a family than males. parents, young adults children and grandparents together. Brown and DeRycke also found that women are more likely to care for relatives in young adults than in young adults. Kinship can be a source of stress when it interferes with other commitments (Gerstel & Gallagher, 1993). Gerstel and Gallagher found that family caregivers work on average almost one full week per month to support the family (almost 34 hours). They also found that the more activities a caregiver did and the more relatives helped, the more stress and depression caregivers experienced. However, unlike other studies of family care, Gerstel and Gallagher also included several activities that would be considered more "affective", such as: B. Transportation, repairs, provision of meals, etc. Surveillance.

care afterHaving a child, spouse, or other family member with a disability is part of life for some middle-aged adults. In general, one of the main sources of stress is trying to balance caregiving with the demands of work outside the home. Caregiving can have both positive and negative outcomes, depending in part on the gender of the caregiver and the person being cared for. Men and women express greater distress when caring for their spouse than when caring for other family members. Men who care about a woman are more likely to experience greater hostility, but also greater personal growth, than men who don't. Men who care for children with disabilities report more positive relationships with others. Women experience more positive relationships with others and a greater purpose in life when they care for their parents inside or outside the home. But women caring for disabled children may experience health problems and, as a result, increased distress (Marks, 1998).

According to the National Alliance for Caregiving (2015), 40 million Americans provide unpaid caregiving. The typical caregiver is a 49-year-old woman currently caring for a 69-year-old woman who needs care for a long-term physical condition. Currently, 25% of adult children, mostly baby boomers, care for their parents personally or financially (Metlife, 2011). Daughters are more likely to take care of basic needs and sons to provide financial support. Adult children over the age of 50 who work and care for a parent are more likely to be in good or poor health than children who do not care for them. Some adult children choose to retire, but the cost of taking early retirement to care for a parent is high. For women, the loss of salary and social security is $324,044, for men it is $283,716 (Metlife, 2011). This loss can jeopardize the financial future of the adult child. Consequently, there is a need for greater flexibility in the workplace for employed carers.

Families play a crucial role in our overall development and happiness. They can support and affirm us, but they can also criticize and overwhelm us. For better or worse, we all have families. Finally, here are some strategies you can use to increase your family's happiness:

  • Teaching Morality: Fostering a sense of moral development in children can promote well-being (Damon, 2004).
  • Enjoy the good: Celebrate the achievements of others (Gable, Gonzaga, & Strachman, 2006).
  • Take advantage of the extended family network: Family members of all ages, including older siblings and grandparents, who can act as caregivers, can enhance family well-being (Armstrong, Birnie-Lefcovitch, & Ungar, 2005).
  • Create a family identity: Share inside jokes, fond memories, and shape family history (McAdams, 1993).
  • Forgive: Don't hold a grudge against each other (McCullough, Worthington, & Rachal, 1997).

intimate relations

Single or no spouse?The number of single adults has increased significantly in the last 30 years. Singles make up about 25% of American households. According to a recent Pew Research study in the US, 16 out of 1,000 adults ages 45-54 have never been married and 7 out of 1,000 adults 55 and older have never been married (Wang & Parker, 2014). . However, some of them can live with a partner. Additionally, some middle-aged singles may become single through divorce or widowhood. Being single has become a more acceptable lifestyle than in the past, and many single people are quite content with their status. Whether or not a single person is happy depends on the circumstances in which they remain single.

Much of the research on single people shows that not everyone is created equal. Satisfaction with one's status depends on whether the person is single by choice and whether the status is permanent. Research by Bella DePaulo (2014) and others found that the married may be happier in life than the divorced or widowed, but there is little difference between being married and forever single.

Online dating:Montenegro (2003) surveyed more than 3,000 single people between the ages of 40 and 69, and almost half of those surveyed said that their number one reason for being in a relationship was to have someone to talk to or do something with. Additionally, sexual satisfaction has also been identified as an important goal for many. Alterovitz & Mendelsohn (2013) studied online personal contacts for men and women over the age of 40 and found that romantic activities and sexual interests were mentioned in similar proportions in the middle-aged and young age groups, but less in older people. Cluster.

Married: It has been said that marriage can be the greatest source of happiness or pain in a person's life, depending on the relationship. Married people can experience deeper happiness and pain than single people. Not all marriages are the same, and the same marriage between two people can change over the years. Pew Research showed that 48% of adults ages 45-54 are married; either first married (22%) or remarried (26%). This makes marriage the most common marital status for middle-aged adults in the United States. Marital satisfaction increases for many middle-aged couples when their children leave home (Landsford, Antonucci, Akiyama, & Takahashi, 2005). Not all researchers agree. They suggest that those who are unhappy in their marriage were probably already divorced, making the quality of marriages appear more satisfactory later in life (Umberson, Williams, Powers, Chen, & Campbell, 2005). Next, we'll look at how the life cycle affects marital satisfaction and two ways to characterize marriages.

Marital Satisfaction and the Life Cycle:Marital satisfaction ebbs and flows throughout the life cycle. Happiness rates are highest in the years leading up to the birth of the first child. With the birth of children it reaches a low point. Relationships are becoming more traditional and there are more financial struggles and stress in life. Then it gets better when the kids leave the house. Children bring new expectations to the marriage. Two people who are comfortable in their partner roles may have a harder time meeting the added responsibilities and expectations of parents. Some couples choose not to have children in order to have more time and resources for their marriage. These childless couples enjoy dedicating their time and attention to their partners, careers, and interests.

types of weddings(Ob 17)

Intrinsic and purpose marriages:One-way marriages differ in terms of why the spouses are married. have some marriagesintrinsic value:Partners are together because they love each other, love each other and appreciate each other. Marriage is not seen as a means to an end, it is an end in itself. These partners are looking for someone they are attracted to and with whom they have a close and intense relationship. These partners find the relationship personally rewarding. Other named marriagespurpose marriagesthey are registered unions mainly for practical reasons. The partners see each other as a means to an end. Marriage brings financial security, children, social status, housework, political favors, a nice car, a nice house, etc. These partners are not focused on intimacy. Such marriages can be selected further by default. (“She was there when it was time for her to get married, so here we are.”) Marriages entered into for practical reasons are more common throughout history and around the world. Intrinsic marriages are a relatively recent phenomenon, the result of the 20th century focus on romantic love as the basis for marriage and greater couple independence. Marriage is now considered less necessary for economic survival. In general, utilitarian marriages tend to be more stable than intrinsic ones. In an inner marriage, when love or passion cools down, there is nothing to keep the spouses together. In marriages of convenience there may be several links (children, assets and status). However, intrinsic marriages can be more romantically satisfying. Most marriages are intrinsic or utilitarian.

In reality, marriages fall somewhere between these two extremes. Now let's look at another type of marriage. As you read through these types, think about whether they are more useful or more intrinsic.

Cuber and Harroff(Ob 18)

This classic typology of marriages is based on interviews with 437 upper-middle-class, highly educated people between the ages of 35 and 55 (Cuber & Haroff, 1965). All were financially successful and emotionally adjusted. From their interviews, the researchers discovered five main types of marriages. Some of them are more intrinsic and some are more utilitarian. (One of the virtues of this model is that it draws attention to the variations that we find in marriages.)

1)conflict marriages: There is significant tension and unresolved conflict in such marriages. Spouses often quarrel, scold and bring up the past. As a rule, both spouses recognize their incompatibility and accept the tense environment as normal. The topic of conversation seems unimportant and the partners do not resolve or expect to resolve their differences. “Of course we didn't solve any of the problems. The basic rule is not to do this. Because for the next date, someone would have to give in and lose face,” explained a troubled 25-year-old married couple. The conflict between them is "controlled", which means that it does not escalate. And it may be the most important way partners interact with each other.

2)Devitalized relationships:These marriages are characterized by being empty and apathetic relationships that once had something more. Typically, couples have been married for several years, and over time the relationship has lost momentum, intimacy, and meaning. Once deeply in love, they remember spending a lot of time enjoying sex and having a close emotional relationship in the past. But now they spend little time together, enjoy sex together less, and don't share many interests and activities. Most of the time is "work time," spent together entertaining their children, planning and sharing activities with them, and participating in roles and responsibilities in the community. Their marriage used to be intrinsic, but now it has become utilitarian. Cuber and Haroff found this to be common among their respondents. The couples accepted this and tried to handle it "maturely." Some attributed it to middle age; as a normal part of aging. Others were upset, bitter about it, and still others were ambivalent. Many considered it appropriate for spouses who had been married for several years and those marriages were stable.

3)passive-pleasant:These utilitarian marriages emphasize the qualities of the partners more than emotional closeness. These upper-middle-class couples tended to emphasize civic and professional responsibilities, as well as the importance of property, children, and reputation. For working-class people, the focus may be on the need for safety or hope for children. Unlike devitalized marriages, passive spouses never expected the marriage to be emotionally intense. Instead, they emphasize the "sensitivity" of their decision to get married. There is little conflict, but that does not mean there are no unspoken frustrations. There is little intimacy, but the partners miss each other's need for informal companionship. Passive birth marriages are less likely to end in divorce than are marriages in which the spouses have high expectations of emotional intensity. But if the marriage does not satisfy practical needs, such as financial support or professional advancement, the spouses can choose to divorce. Or if a partner finds that they want more intimacy, they may walk away.

4)Vital:These intrinsic marriages are born from the desire to be together to enjoy each other. Key partners keep their separate identities but genuinely enjoy sharing activities. They have conflicts, but they focus on real issues instead of who said what first or old grievances. They try to resolve disagreements quickly so they can resume the relationship that means so much to them. There are few areas of long-term tension. Sex is important and enjoyable. Cuber and Haroff noted that these marriages were in the minority.

5)full wedding:These are also intrinsic. They are like vital marriages, but marriage encompasses even more areas of a couple's life. Spouses can share work life, friends and leisure activities, and personal life. They can organize their life to be able to be alone for long periods of time. These relationships are emotionally intense. Full marriages were also rare. They may also be at risk of rapidly disintegrating if the quality of their marriage changes. These partners tend to want so much intensity that they are not happy with less. These marriages also foster an interdependence that makes it difficult for the remaining couple to adjust in the event of death or divorce.

Marriage Communication(Ob 19)

Tips on how to improve your marriage have been around for centuries. One of today's marital communication experts is John Gottman. Gottman (1999) differs from many marriage counselors in his belief that a good marriage does not depend on compatibility. Rather, the way the partners communicate is decisive. At the University of Washington in Seattle, Gottman measured the physiological responses of thousands of couples as they discussed their disagreements. Fidgeting in the chair, leaning closer to or further from the partner while talking, increases in breathing and heart rate are recorded and analyzed along with video recordings of the couple's exchanges. Gottman believes that by analyzing their communication, he can accurately predict whether or not a couple will stay together. In doomed marriages, the partners engage in the "marriage killers," also known as the 4 horsemen: contempt, criticism, defense, and hindrance. All undermine the courtesy and respect that healthy marriages demand. And blocking or excluding someone is the strongest sign that a relationship is doomed.

Table. Gottman's 4 Horsemen and more positive approaches

(Video) The Time You Have (In JellyBeans)

Gottmann Ritterpossible solutions
Contempt: Attacking Characterorganize
Criticism: ridicule or disrespect, think lessappreciate and respect
Defensive attitude: self-protection or retaliation, switch to partner foulsTake responsibility
Obstruction: withdrawing from the interaction, avoiding conflict, withdrawing, acting busycalm down and re-involve yourself
Adapted from Gottman (2017)

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (20)

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divorce(Ob 20)

Livingston (2014) found that 27% of adults aged 45-54 were divorced. Furthermore, 57% of divorced adults were women. This reflects the fact that men are more likely to remarry than women. Two-thirds of divorces are initiated by women (AARP, 2009). Most divorces occur within the first 5 to 10 years of marriage. This timeline reflects people's initial attempts to salvage the relationship. After a few years of limited success, the couple may decide to end the marriage. Divorce used to be rare after 20 years or more of marriage, but in recent years the divorce rate has increased for longer marriages. Brown and Lin (2013) find that while the divorce rate in the US has declined since the 1990s, the rate has doubled among those 50 and older. They suggest several reasons for the "aging of divorce." Divorce is less stigmatized today than ever before. Some older women earn more than their spouses and therefore may be more financially able to support themselves, especially since most of their children are older. Finally, as people live longer, the prospect of living with an irreconcilable spouse for a few more years or decades can cause middle-aged and older adults to leave a marriage.

Gottman and Levenson (2000) found that divorce in early adulthood was more aggressive and confrontational, with each spouse blaming the other for the failure of the marriage. Instead, they found that midlife divorces had more to do with growing apart or cooling off in the relationship. AARP research (2009) found that men and women had different motivations for getting divorced. Women expressed concern about their partner's verbal and physical abuse (23%), drug/alcohol abuse (18%), and infidelity (17%). On the other hand, men mentioned falling in love easily (17%), not sharing more interests or values ​​(14%) and being unfaithful (14%). Both sexes felt their marriages ended long before the decision to divorce was made, and many of the middle-aged adults in the survey said they stayed together because they were still raising children. Only 1 in 4 regretted their divorce decision.

Divorce has many consequences. Midlife divorce is more stressful for women. In the AARP (2009) survey, 44% of middle-aged women reported financial hardship after their spouses divorced, compared to just 11% of men who reported such hardship. However, several women who experience divorce in midlife report using the experience for self-improvement or emotional growth (Hetherington & Kelly, 2002).

Dating After Divorce:Most divorced adults have dated within a year of filing for divorce (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Greene, 2011). One in four applicants reported being or having been in a committed relationship, and more than half were in a committed relationship within a year of filing for divorce. Dating adults with children can be more of a challenge. Courtship times are shorter for new marriages than for first marriages. When couples get to know each other, they go out less and spend more time on activities around the house or with the children. As a result, the couple spends less time together to focus on their relationship. Fears or memories of past relationships can also get in the way.

parents after divorcegoalie, that is, they regulate the flow of information about their new romantic partner to their children in order to balance their own love needs with consideration of their children's needs and responses. Anderson et al. (2004) found that nearly half (47%) of dating parents introduce their children to their partner gradually, giving both the romantic partner and children time to adjust and get to know each other. Many parents who use this approach do so to avoid their children having to meet someone until it becomes clear that this relationship may be more than casual. It can also be helpful if the adult relationship is on firmer ground so that it can withstand initial resistance from children when exposed. 40 percent are open and transparent about their new relationship with their children from the start. 13 percent only disclose the relationship when it is clear that they are likely to live together and/or remarry. Anderson and her colleagues suggest that practical issues affect the method of control that parents can use. Parents can protect their children from a parade of suitors if reliable child care is available. The age and temperament of the child, as well as concerns about the ex-spouse's reaction, can also influence when parents disclose their romantic relationships to their children.

What influence do children have on the new partner/new partner?

Does having children affect whether a parent remarries? Goldscheider and Sassler (2006) found that having children living with their mothers reduced mothers' odds of marrying, only relative to marrying a childless man. One reason for this is that women with children have less time and fewer resources to date. Dating is hard for a woman who has to find a babysitter, pay for a babysitter, and "get home on time" when she's worried about what her kids think about her relationships. There is more guilt about dating and finding the time and place for sexual intimacy can be problematic. Men may shy away from responsibility for children, or may have difficulty getting along with a friend's children. And parents can find it difficult to date someone who wants to change the relationship they have with their children. Sometimes she can feel pulled in two directions when both the boys and the man in her life seek attention and engage in power struggles to get it. Some women decide that being single is easier than going through such breakups. (This can also apply to men whose girlfriends try to put their importance above their children.) Children often remain the center of a single parent's life.

Having children at home seems to make single men more likely to marry women with children (Stewart, Manning & Smock, 2003). There is also evidence that people who were in foster care as children feel better prepared for foster care life as adults. Goldscheider and Kaufman (2006) found that experiencing family divorce as a child is associated with a greater willingness to marry a couple with children.

When children are present after divorce, one of the challenges for adults is how much influence the child will have in choosing a new partner. Greene, Anderson, Hetherington, Forgatch, and DeGarmo (2003) identified two types of parents. The child-centered parent allows the child's opinions, reactions, and needs to influence the new relationship. In contrast, the adult-oriented parent expects their child to be able to adapt and conform to the parent's wishes.

Anderson and Greene (2011) found that divorced custodial mothers identified as more adult-oriented tended to be older, more educated, more employed, and more likely to be married longer. Additionally, adult-oriented mothers reported fewer relationships with their children, spending less time in shared activities with their children, and the child reported fewer relationships with their mothers. Eventually, as the child and partner opposed each other, the adult-oriented mothers were more responsive to the partner's concerns, while the child-oriented mothers were more responsive to the child's concerns. Understanding the implications of these two different perspectives can help parents in their attempts at reconciliation.

new marriage(Ob 21)

New marriage rates:Half of all marriages are remarriages of at least one of the spouses. The remarriage rate, like the marriage rate, has generally declined. In 2013, the remarriage rate was approximately 28 per 1,000 adults age 18 and older. This represents a 44% decline since 1990 and a 16% decline since 2008 (Payne, 2015). Brown and Lin (2013) found that remarriage rates declined more for young adults than for older and middle-aged adults, and Livingston (2014) found that we are more likely to remarry as we age (see Figure 8.33). This is not surprising, since it takes time to get married, get divorced, and then find someone else to marry. However, Livingston found that those over 55, in contrast to those under 55, are more likely to remarry than in the past. In 2013, 67% of adults ages 55 to 64 and 50% of adults age 65 and older remarried, compared to 55% and 34%, respectively, in 1960.

Success of the new marriage:Opinions about the happiness and success of the new marriage are mixed. Living together is the main way couples prepare to remarry, but even when living together, many important issues still go undiscussed. Problems related to money, ex-spouses, children, visits, future plans, previous marital problems, etc. they can cause problems later in the relationship. And few couples engage in premarital counseling or other structured efforts to cover this area before remarriage. While some new marriages are more successful, particularly when the divorce has motivated the adult to seek self-improvement and personal growth (Hetherington & Kelly, 2002), many divorced adults end up in very similar marriages the second or third time (Hetherington & Kelly, 2002). Kelly, 2002) and Kelly, 2002).

New marriages present challenges not found in first marriages, which can add additional stress to the marital relationship. When trying to incorporate new relatives into the family structure, there can often be a general lack of clarity regarding family roles and expectations, even determining the appropriate conditions for these relatives along with their roles can be challenging. Partners may need to carefully manage their role in dealing with their partner's children. All this can generate greater dissatisfaction and even resentment among family members. Although remarried couples tend to have more realistic expectations about marriage, they tend to be less willing to stay in unhappy situations. The divorce rate for new marriages is higher than for first marriages (Payne, 2015), which can create additional burdens, especially where children are involved.

Factors Affecting Remarriage:The chances of remarriage depend on several factors. First of all, it depends on the availability of partners. Over time, more women than men become available in the marriage pool. As a result, men marry more often than women. This lack of available partners is experienced by all women, but especially by African American women, where the ratio of women to men is quite high. Women are more likely to have children living with them, and this also reduces the likelihood of remarriage. And marriage is more attractive to men than to women (Seccombe & Warner, 2004). Men tend to remarry sooner (an average of 3 years after divorce versus an average of 5 years for women).

Many women do not remarry because they do not want to remarry. Traditionally, marriage has brought more benefits to men than to women. Women often have to make further adjustments at work (adjusting work life to meet family demands or husband's approval) and at home (taking more responsibility for household chores). Furthermore, male fitness is not as strongly influenced by age as female fitness. The cultural emphasis on youth and the physical beauty of women does not apply to men. Today, there are more educated women than ever before, and more educated women are less likely to find partners who meet this expectation. To be happily single, one must be financially self-sufficient and psychologically independent. Women in this situation may find remarriage less attractive.


In addition to maintaining relationships with their children and aging parents, many middle-aged people take on another role and become grandparents. In the US, the average age to become a grandparent is 50, although many people are even earlier (AARP, 2018). The role of grandparents varies around the world. In multigenerational homes, grandparents may play a larger role in their grandchildren's daily activities. While this family dynamic is most prevalent in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, it is increasing in the United States (Pew Research Center, 2010).

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (21)

Image courtesy of Flickr

Cherlin and Furstenberg (1986) describe three types of grandparents:

1. Remote: Thirty percent of grandparents rarely see their grandchildren. They usually live far from their grandchildren, but they can also have a long-distance relationship. Contact is usually established on special occasions, such as holidays or birthdays.

2. Couples: 55% of the grandparents were described as “couples”. These grandparents do things with their grandchildren but have little authority or control over them. They prefer to spend time with them without interfering with raising children. They are more like friends of your grandchildren.

3. Involved: 15 percent of grandparents were described as "involved." These grandparents play a very active role in the lives of their grandchildren. Children can even live with their grandparents. The affected grandparent is the one who has frequent contact with and authority over the grandchild. Grandmothers play this role more than grandfathers. In contrast, more grandfathers than grandmothers saw their role as family historians and counselors (Neugarten & Weinstein, 1964).

Bengtson (2001) suggests that grandparents with different grandchildren adopt different styles and may change styles over time as family circumstances change. Today there are more and more grandparents who take care of their grandchildren alone or can intervene in moments of crisis. With these changes, grandparents are redefining the way they view their role in the family, with fewer taking on a more formal role (Hayslip, Henderson, & Shore, 2003).

Early research on grandparents used to focus on grandmothers, with grandparents often becoming invisible family members (Sorensen & Cooper, 2010). However, grandparents, like grandmothers, emphasize the importance of their relationships with their grandchildren (Waldrop et al., 1999). For some men, this can provide an opportunity to engage in activities that have prevented them from relating to their own children due to their job and their generation's views on fatherhood and masculinity (Sorenson & Cooper, 2010). Many of the grandparents in the Sorenson and Cooper study found that being a grandparent was easier and much more enjoyable. Even among grandparents who took on more involved roles, there was still a greater sense that they could be more light-hearted and flexible in dealing with their grandchildren. Many grandparents reported that they loved their grandchildren more openly than their own children.

productivity at work(Ob 23)

Midlife is a time of transition, change, and renewal. The middle-aged worker needs to be flexible, keep up with technology, and be able to work in a global community. We have already discussed specialization as part of our vision of midlife cognitive development. Work and middle age cover many scenarios. A person can be at the peak of their job performance during this time. The connections between work units, the business, culture, and operations can be appreciated for the first time, and in doing so, a middle-aged worker can contribute to an organization in new and broader ways. Midlife can also be the peak season for earning and spending to meet the demands of having children or caring for aging parents. Some experience steady careers, while others experience layoffs and go back to school to learn new skills for a new job. Others experience age discrimination or have difficulty finding employment due to higher wage demands compared to younger and less experienced workers (Barnett, 1997). Employers may find it more profitable to hire a young adult despite their limited experience, since they would start at lower levels of the salary scale. Additionally, hiring a 25-year-old who has many years of work ahead of him versus a 55-year-old who is expected to retire in 10 years may also be part of the decision to hire a younger worker (Lachman, 2004). ) . American workers also compete with global markets and technological changes. Those who can keep up with all these changes, or who are willing to uproot and move across the country or even the world, are more likely to find work. Some middle-aged adults anticipate retirement, while others delay it for financial reasons.

Working environment for middle-aged adults:Attitudes toward work and job satisfaction tend to change or refocus during this period. Age is positively related to job satisfaction: the older we get, the higher our job satisfaction (Ng & Feldman, 2010). Several studies have found that job satisfaction tends to peak in mid-adulthood (Besen, Matz-Costa, Brown, Smyer, & PittCatsouphers, 2013; Easterlin, 2006). This satisfaction comes not only from higher wages, but also from greater involvement in decisions that affect the workplace as they transition from worker to supervisor or manager. Job satisfaction is also affected by the ability to do the job well, and after years of on-the-job experience, many people are more effective and productive. Another reason for this increase in job satisfaction is that many midlife adults lower their expectations and goals (Tangri, Thomas, & Mednick, 2003). Middle-aged employees may feel that they have reached the highest point they are likely to reach in their careers. This job satisfaction leads to less absenteeism, higher productivity, and fewer job changes compared to younger adults (Easterlin, 2006).

However, not all middle-aged adults are happy in the workplace. Dobrow, Gazach, and Liu (2018) found that job satisfaction was correlated with age among people aged 43-51, but dissatisfaction increased the longer one stayed in the same job. There is a reluctance to tolerate a work situation that is considered inappropriate or unsatisfactory. The remaining years, unlike the exhausted years, require a sense of all daily activities and interactions, including work. Additionally, women may be subject to the glass ceiling, organizational discrimination in the workplace that limits women's career advancement. This may explain why women employed in large companies are twice as likely to leave their jobs than men (Barreto, Ryan, & Schmitt, 2009). Another problem that older workers may encounter is burnout, disappointment, and frustration at work. American workers may experience more turnover than workers in many other developed countries, as most developed countries legally guarantee a certain number of paid vacation days (International Labor Organization, 2011), while the United States does not. (US Department of Labor, 2016). ) . Not all employees are covered by overtime pay laws (US Department of Labor, 2016). That's important considering the 40-hour workweek is a myth for most Americans. Only 4 out of 10 American workers work the typical 40-hour week. The average work week is almost a full day longer (47 hours) for many, with 39% working 50 hours or more per week (Saad, 2014). Compared with workers in many other developed countries, American workers work more hours per year (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2016). Americans work longer hours than most European countries, particularly in Western and Northern Europe, although they work fewer hours than workers in other countries, particularly Mexico.

One of the most influential researchers in this field, Dorien Kooij (2013), identified four main reasons in older adults who continue to work. First, motivation for growth or development: looking for new challenges in the work environment. The second is feelings of approval and power. Third, the feeling of power and security provided by income and the potential health benefits. Interestingly, the fourth area of ​​motivation was Erikson's generativity. The latter has been criticized for lack of support from empirical research, but two studies (Zacher et al, 2012; Ghislieri & Gatti, 2012) found that the main motivation for continuing work was the desire to impart skills and experience, a process that they describe as leader generativity. Perhaps a more direct term is tutoring. In any case, the concept of generative leadership has now become firmly established in the business and organization-wide literature.

Average Adult - Lifetime Psychology (22)

Image courtesy of PublicDomainPictures.Net

Today's workplace is a place where many people from different walks of life come together. Work schedules are more flexible and varied, and more people are working independently from home or anywhere there is an Internet connection. The middle-aged worker needs to be flexible, keep up with technology, and be able to work in a global community. And the middle-aged spirit seeks meaningful work.

middle-aged personality(Ob 22)

Does middle age change personality? Think about your parents or other adults you have known for a long time. Did their personalities change when they reached middle age? Or were they practically the same? Some theorists claim that personality becomes more stable as we reach middle age. Others suggest that new personality traits emerge with age. These may be traits we didn't want to display when we were younger.

Midlife is considered a time of increased stability, especially when compared to early adulthood or adolescence. A person's tendency toward extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness, whichbig fivepersonality traits, is more consistent (McCrae & Costa, 2003). These are believed to be largely based on biological inheritance. These five qualities, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism are sometimes grouped under the acronym OCEAN. Contemporary research shows that some people's personalities are relatively stable over time, while others are not (Lucas & Donnellan, 2011; Roberts & Mroczek, 2008). Longitudinal studies show mean changes throughout adulthood, and individual differences in these patterns throughout life may be due to idiosyncratic life events (eg, divorce, illness). Roberts, Wood, and Caspi (2008) report evidence of increases in agreeableness and conscientiousness with age, mixed results for openness, reduction in neuroticism but only in women, and no change for extraversion. It remains to be determined whether this 'maturation' is the cause or effect of some of the changes noted in the section on psychosocial development. Longitudinal research also suggests that adult personality traits, such as conscientiousness, predict important life outcomes, including job success, health, and longevity (Friedman, Tucker, Tomlinson-Keasey, Schwartz, Wingard, & Criqui, 1993; Roberts, Kuncel, Shiner, Caspi, & Goldberg, 2007). The meaning of these changes remains unresolved. Therefore, the researchers emphasize the consistency of personality beyond the age of thirty with some very small variations.

While there is some stability in personality, middle age is also considered a time of change. Carl Jung believed that our personality actually matures as we get older. A healthy personality is one that is balanced. People suffer from tension and anxiety when they cannot express all their qualities. Jung believed that each of us has a "dark side." For example, typically introverts also have an extrovert side that rarely expresses itself when we are relaxed and uninhibited. Each of us has a masculine side and a feminine side, but in our youth we felt social pressure to express only one. As we get older, we can become freer to express all our qualities when the situation arises. We found gender convergence in older adults. Men are more interested in intimacy and family ties. Women can become more confident. This convergence of the sexes is also influenced by changes in social expectations of men and women. With each new generation we find that the roles of men and women are less stereotyped and this also allows for change. Again, a sense of mastery and control over one's life can help midlife adults cope with the challenges of this stage of life (Lachman & Firth, 2004).


Introducing Midlife as a Central and Crucial Phase in Life Midlife is a period of transition. This is a crucial phase in the life course to balance growth and decline, connecting earlier and later periods of life and uniting the younger and older generations. Midlife combines the experiences of childhood with the health of midlife, and the lifestyle of midlife with the health of old age. It also works on an interpersonal and intergenerational level through functions such as nurturing, nurturing, and counselling. It is also a time of productivity and experience; a time to put things together. A clear sense of identity and control can be important in overcoming the challenges of midlife (Lachman & Firth, 2004). We understand midlife best in the context of the resume. However, there is still more to learn. The midlife story will continue to unfold as more attention is paid to it as a part of life.

Chapter 10 Key Terms

Climacteriumproblem oriented coping
Emotion-focused copingrelationship
flowing intelligenceutility
crystallized intelligencewedding course
tacit knowledgeHolland's career theory
Caudalsuper race theory
expertisebig 5 personality
overload stressors
boomerang kids


How many people will the average person meet in a lifetime? ›

That great paragon of analytical rigor, Ask.Com, says that the average American will meet 10,000 people in their lifetime. That's a lot of folks.

How many questions does the average person ask a day? ›

We are all born curious, but do we stay curious? Children ask a staggering 73 questions a day, compared to just 20 that adults ask.

How much time is spent working in a lifetime? ›

The average person will spend 90,000 hours at work over a lifetime.

How many people does an average person see in a day? ›

In the simulation, people have an average of 16 contacts per day and Fig. 5 shows the distribution of these contact durations. There are many short-duration contacts (four contacts per day per person are less than 30 min) representing casual interactions.

How many people has the average person slept with? ›

Here's our process. The average number of sexual partners for men and women in the United States is 7.2, reports a recent Superdrug survey. The U.K.-based health and beauty retailer asked more than 2,000 men and women in the United States and Europe to explain their thoughts and experiences on sexual histories.

How many friends does the average person have? ›

In general, based on 2021 survey data, the average person in America has between 3 and 5 close friends. According to this survey: almost half (49%) report having 3 or fewer close friends. over one-third (36%) report having between 4 and 9 close friends.

What is the most asked question of all time? ›

What is the most asked question in the world? It might be quite surprising to know that the most asked question in the world is “what is my ip”. There are a little over 3 million people who ask this question every month on Google and that's just one variation of the question.

Why do the 36 questions work? ›

The logic behind Aron's technique is that 36 very personal questions would force two strangers to reveal something of their own vulnerabilities to each other. This forms a bond between them.

How many people does the average person know well? ›

The average American knows about 600 people. How do we know this? Researchers led by my Columbia colleague Tian Zheng posed a series of questions to a representative sample of 1,500 Americans: How many people do you know named Kevin? How many named Karen?

How much does a person sleep in a lifetime? ›

A good night's sleep is vital for every human being to survive. Given that an average a person sleeps for 8 hours in a day, that means that an average person will sleep for 229,961 hours in their lifetime or basically one third of their life.

How many years does a person sleep in a lifetime? ›

The average person spends about 26 years sleeping in their life which equates to 9,490 days or 227,760 hours. Surprisingly, we also spend 7 years trying to get to sleep. That's 33 years or 12,045 days spent in bed! But what's so special about sleep?

Is there more to life than work? ›

But it is important to remember that we don't live to work, we work so that we can live. Even though work is a big part of our time, there is more to life than work. We work so that we can live happier, fulfilled, more engaged lives.

How many colors does a person see? ›

Researchers estimate that most humans can see around one million different colors. This is because a healthy human eye has three types of cone cells, each of which can register about 100 different color shades, amounting to around a million combinations.

How much can humans not see? ›

In terms of frequency, this corresponds to a band in the vicinity of 400–790 terahertz. These boundaries are not sharply defined and may vary per individual. Under optimal conditions these limits of human perception can extend to 310 nm (ultraviolet) and 1100 nm (near infrared).

How many days does average person live? ›

If you are 65, you have 3,650 days left to live. The average person lives 27,375 days. Make each one count.

How many girls does the average guy sleep with in a lifetime? ›

According to their findings, the average person who identifies as a woman has seven sexual partners in her life, while a person who identifies as a man has around six. And while you might think this is a little low — after all, a lifetime is a long time — apparently these numbers are "ideal" for many in the US.

How many guys does average girl slept with? ›

An curved arrow pointing right. Nectar Sleep surveyed Americans to discover how many sexual partners they had before settling down. The average number for people who identify as men was 26, the average number for people who identify as women was 19. But other studies have shown that people often lie about their number.

What is a high body count? ›

“What's your body count?” “On the count of three lets both say our body count.” “If you have a higher body count than 10 that will make me less attracted to you.” Body count is the colloquial term for the amount of people you have had sex with.

How common is it to have no friends? ›

In general, having no friends is relatively normal. A February 2021 report found that 36% of Americans felt serious loneliness and a 2019 report showed that 1 in 5 people had no friends. If you have no friends, you are not alone. However, having no friends can lead to loneliness for some people.

How many friends are needed in life? ›

The ideal number in our core group

They're our most important allies in the pursuit of things like happiness, self-esteem and wellbeing. Research by an academic called Susan Degges-White found that people with three to five close friends report the highest levels of life satisfaction.

How many friends should you have in a lifetime? ›

Research suggests that the number of close friends we need to feel that we have enough is somewhere between three and five. Not only that, but adults with four or five friends enjoy the highest levels of life satisfaction and those with three close friends are not far behind.

What are the 3 big questions in life? ›

You've already got answers to the five big questions of life:
  • Where did I come from?
  • Who am I?
  • Why am I here?
  • How should I live?
  • Where am I going?
8 Nov 2018

What is the most Googled word? ›

The word Wordle itself crowned the top spot as Google's most searched term globally and in the US in 2022. The searches were revealed by the tech giant in their annual Year in Search report.

What is the golden question? ›

WHAT ARE 'GOLDEN QUESTIONS'? Golden questions are the smallest number of survey questions that can be used to reproduce market segments previously created from longer lists of questions.

What is 70% on a 70 question test? ›

A C is 70% to 79% A D is 60% to 69%

How many questions can you miss from 30 to get 80%? ›

80 times 30 = 24. That means you have to get 24 right, so you can miss 6. You can miss 20% of the questions and score 80%.

How long do the 36 questions take? ›

The 36 questions are broken up into three sets, with a gradual increase in the intensity of self-disclosure. The couple takes turns asking questions over a period of 90 minutes.

Does the average person think they are smart? ›

While most people do well at assessing others, they are wildly positive about their own abilities, Dunning said. In studies, most people overestimate their IQ.

How smart is the average person? ›

IQ tests are made to have an average score of 100. Psychologists revise the test every few years in order to maintain 100 as the average. Most people (about 68 percent) have an IQ between 85 and 115. Only a small fraction of people have a very low IQ (below 70) or a very high IQ (above 130).

Is it true you are the average of 5 people? ›

Motivational speaker Jim Rohn says that we are the average of the five people we spend the most time with. This relates to the law of averages, which is the theory that the result of any given situation will be the average of all outcomes.

How much sleep do 100 year olds need? ›

Older adults need about the same amount of sleep as all adults—7 to 9 hours each night. But, older people tend to go to sleep earlier and get up earlier than they did when they were younger.

Can humans live with 2 hours of sleep? ›

The answer to this question is an emphatic no. Most people will still be impaired from sleep deficiency even if they sleep for more than twice this amount.

Can adults live on 6 hours of sleep? ›

Getting only six hours of sleep each night is considered a poor sleep schedule that can result in sleep deprivation and lead to poor mental health and potential sleep disorders. You can survive on six hours of sleep but that would not be good for your long-term health.

How many times we can live without sleep? ›

The longest recorded time without sleep is approximately 264 hours, or just over 11 consecutive days. Although it's unclear exactly how long humans can survive without sleep, it isn't long before the effects of sleep deprivation start to show. After only three or four nights without sleep, you can start to hallucinate.

How long can a human sleep without waking up? ›

Other weird records

Previously, Peter Tripp held the first record at 201 hours and suffered from hallucinations for several days after. Between Peter and Randy, Honolulu DJ Tom Rounds made it to 260 hours. Randy tapped out at 264 hours, and slept for 14 hours straight after.

How many years do we spend dreaming? ›

Brain activity in the forebrain and midbrain is particularly intense during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is when we dream. During a typical lifetime, people spend an average of six years dreaming.

Are people without jobs happier? ›

“For all measures and regions, employed people had higher subjective well-being than unemployed people, with differences that usually peaked around age 50 years and were lower at younger and older ages,” state the researchers.

What job has the lowest life expectancy? ›

A 2021 study on Occupation-Based Life Expectancy found that people working in non-skilled general, technical and transport domains lived on average 3.5 years less than those in academic professions. Those working in the transport sector had the shortest life expectancy, and teachers had the longest.

Do hard working people live longer? ›

The conscientious, hard-working personality trait extends life by an average of two to three years, Friedman said, the equivalent to a 20 percent to 30 percent decreased risk of early death.

Is there a color we Cannot see? ›

Red-green and yellow-blue are the so-called "forbidden colors." Composed of pairs of hues whose light frequencies automatically cancel each other out in the human eye, they're supposed to be impossible to see simultaneously.

What colours can humans not see? ›

Now, due to antagonistic fashion in which colours work and the opponent process, we can't see certain colours at the same time, i.e. blue versus yellow, red versus green, and light versus dark. The colours blueish-yellow and greenish-red are the alleged “impossible” colours we can't see.

What colors do dogs see? ›

Human eyes have three types of cones that can identify combinations of red, blue, and green. Dogs possess only two types of cones and can only discern blue and yellow - this limited color perception is called dichromatic vision.

Can humans only see 1 %? ›

The entire rainbow of radiation observable to the human eye only makes up a tiny portion of the electromagnetic spectrum – about 0.0035 percent. This range of wavelengths is known as visible light.

What color does the human eye see first? ›

On the other hand, since yellow is the most visible color of all the colors, it is the first color that the human eye notices.

How many colours human eye can? ›

How many colours can we see? A healthy human eye has three types of cone cells, each of which can register about 100 different colour shades, therefore most researchers ballpark the number of colours we can distinguish at around a million.

What is the most common age of death? ›

The world average age of death is a few years lower at 70.6 years for men and 75.1 years for women. Within the European Union, these are 77.8 and 83.3 years respectively. Birth rate and death rate are given in births/deaths per 1,000 inhabitants within one year. The table shows the official data from the year 2020.

Who lives longest on average? ›

The tiny country of Monaco is the second smallest in the world but has the overall highest life expectancy. Like long-life communities in Italy, Greece and Spain, many people here eat the Mediterranean diet.

What birth month lives the shortest? ›

We used Danish data from the years 1911 to 1915 on seasonal infant mortality in the first year of life and found that, according to our model (Eq. 4), infants born in June are the most vulnerable.

Is it called 20 or 21 questions? ›

The classic "21 Questions" game has all the right questions to help you get to know someone better, whether it's your best friend or your crush. We've rounded up the most interesting questions to spark great conversations about anything and everything.

Is 20 questions a good idea? ›

Asking your crush 20 deep questions is a surefire way to learn more about each other while building an intimate bond. You might have heard of the 36 questions experiment. Two psychologists, Arthur Aron, Ph.

Is it 20 questions or 21 questions? ›

The purpose of the game is to ask someone (solo, or a member of a group) 21 questions, all of which must be answered honestly.

What do I ask a girl? ›

15 Questions to Ask a Girl to Get to Know Her
  • Where did you grow up?
  • What did you study in college and why?
  • What's your favorite place to run away to?
  • What do you do to cheer yourself up?
  • How do you like to receive love?
  • Who knows you best?
  • What are you most attracted to in a guy?
28 Nov 2022

What is 21 questions to ask a guy? ›

21 Questions to Ask a Guy to Get to Know Him
  • What's Your Family Like? ...
  • What's Your Favorite Childhood Memory? ...
  • What's Your Favorite Song? ...
  • Where Do You See Yourself in Five Years? ...
  • Do You Want Children? ...
  • If You Could Have One Superpower, What Would It Be? ...
  • What Do You Enjoy Most About Your Job?
7 Apr 2019

What should I ask a girl I just met? ›

27 of the Best Questions to Ask Someone You've Just Met
  • What shows are you into? ...
  • What's your favorite movie or movie genre? ...
  • What's your favorite sport? ...
  • What is your favorite food or restaurant? ...
  • What are your favorite books, magazines, websites, or blogs? ...
  • If you could visit anywhere in the world, where would you go?
11 Sept 2020

What is 80% of a 25 question test? ›

Answer: 80% of 25 is 20.

What is 70% on a 20 question test? ›

Answer: 70% of 20 is 14.

Does it take 4 minutes to fall in love? ›

Twenty years ago, New York psychologist Professor Arthur Arun succeeded in making two complete strangers fall in love in a laboratory, in just 94 minutes. The study involved a combination of four minutes of staring into each other's eyes, and 90 minutes of intimate conversation using pre-determined questions.

What questions build intimacy? ›

50 questions to build emotional intimacy
  • What do you think your younger self would think of our relationship?
  • What have you learned about relationships from your parents?
  • When was the last time you cried?
  • Have your friendships taught you anything about romantic relationships?
  • What does 'work-life balance' mean to you?
23 Jul 2021

What should I ask a girl about herself? ›

Personal questions to ask a girl list
  • What is the strangest habit you have? ...
  • What movie made you cry the most? ...
  • What is the most embarrassing thing you own? ...
  • What do you hope you grow out of? ...
  • What is the healthiest and unhealthiest thing you do regularly? ...
  • How much do you judge a person by their appearance?

Is 21 questions a dating game? ›

The 21 Questions Game is an easy and interesting way to get to know someone better. It is a question and answer game that you play with friends and family. You can also play it with your date and understand each others' personalities in a fun way.

How do you play 21 questions with a girl? ›

Randomly choose one person to ask the first of the 21 questions, then move through the group until everyone has had a chance to answer. This is optional, but a player can “pass” on questions if they don't feel comfortable answering.


1. 8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson
2. How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime | Nadine Burke Harris
3. How A Messed Up Childhood Affects You In Adulthood
(The School of Life)
(5-Minute Crafts)
5. Chapter 1 Lifespan Psychology Lecture
(Rachelle Chaykin)
6. Adolescence: Crash Course Psychology #20
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